World Database on Protected Areas 2020-07-07

Land Biodiversity Coastal and Marine #data #pacificdata #protectedareas

The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global database of marine and terrestrial protected areas, updated on a monthly basis, and is one of the key global biodiversity data sets being widely used by scientists, businesses, governments, International secretariats and others to inform planning, policy decisions and management.

The WDPA is a joint project between UN Environment and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The compilation and management of the WDPA is carried out by UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), in collaboration with governments, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. There are monthly updates of the data which are made available online through the Protected Planet website where the data is both viewable and downloadable.

Data and information on the world's protected areas compiled in the WDPA are used for reporting to the Convention on Biological Diversity on progress towards reaching the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (particularly Target 11), to the UN to track progress towards the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, to some of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) core indicators, and other international assessments and reports including the Global Biodiversity Outlook, as well as for the publication of the United Nations List of Protected Areas. Every two years, UNEP-WCMC releases the Protected Planet Report on the status of the world's protected areas and recommendations on how to meet international goals and targets.

Many platforms are incorporating the WDPA to provide integrated information to diverse users, including businesses and governments, in a range of sectors including mining, oil and gas, and finance. For example, the WDPA is included in the Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool, an innovative decision support tool that gives users easy access to up-to-date information that allows them to identify biodiversity risks and opportunities within a project boundary.

The reach of the WDPA is further enhanced in services developed by other parties, such as the Global Forest Watch and the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas, which provide decision makers with access to monitoring and alert systems that allow whole landscapes to be managed better. Together, these applications of the WDPA demonstrate the growing value and significance of the Protected Planet initiative.

World Database on Protected Areas 2020-06-06

Land Biodiversity #data #pacificdata #protectedareas

The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global database of marine and terrestrial protected areas, updated on a monthly basis, and is one of the key global biodiversity data sets being widely used by scientists, businesses, governments, International secretariats and others to inform planning, policy decisions and management.

The WDPA is a joint project between UN Environment and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The compilation and management of the WDPA is carried out by UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), in collaboration with governments, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. There are monthly updates of the data which are made available online through the Protected Planet website where the data is both viewable and downloadable.

Data and information on the world's protected areas compiled in the WDPA are used for reporting to the Convention on Biological Diversity on progress towards reaching the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (particularly Target 11), to the UN to track progress towards the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, to some of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) core indicators, and other international assessments and reports including the Global Biodiversity Outlook, as well as for the publication of the United Nations List of Protected Areas. Every two years, UNEP-WCMC releases the Protected Planet Report on the status of the world's protected areas and recommendations on how to meet international goals and targets.

Many platforms are incorporating the WDPA to provide integrated information to diverse users, including businesses and governments, in a range of sectors including mining, oil and gas, and finance. For example, the WDPA is included in the Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool, an innovative decision support tool that gives users easy access to up-to-date information that allows them to identify biodiversity risks and opportunities within a project boundary.

The reach of the WDPA is further enhanced in services developed by other parties, such as the Global Forest Watch and the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas, which provide decision makers with access to monitoring and alert systems that allow whole landscapes to be managed better. Together, these applications of the WDPA demonstrate the growing value and significance of the Protected Planet initiative.

OpenStreetMap Data Pacific 2020-06-08

gis map open source osm pacific spatial

OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, editable map & spatial database of the whole world.
This dataset is an extract of OpenStreetMap data for 14 Pacific Island Countries, in a GIS-friendly format.
The OSM data has been split into separate layers based on themes (buildings, roads, points of interest, etc), and it comes bundled with a QGIS project and styles, to help you get started with using the data in your maps.

This OSM product will be updated weekly and contains data for Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

The goal is to increase awareness among Pacific GIS users of the richness of OpenStreetMap data in Pacific countries, as well as the gaps, so that they can take advantage of this free resource, become interested in contributing to OSM, and perhaps join the global OSM community.

OpenStreetMap Data Papua New Guinea 2020-06-10

gis map open source osm pacific spatial

OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, editable map & spatial database of the whole world. This dataset is an extract of OpenStreetMap data for Papua New Guinea in a GIS-friendly format.

The OSM data has been split into separate layers based on themes (buildings, roads, points of interest, etc), and it comes bundled with a QGIS project and styles, to help you get started with using the data in your maps. This OSM product will be updated weekly.

The goal is to increase awareness among Pacific GIS users of the richness of OpenStreetMap data in Pacific countries, as well as the gaps, so that they can take advantage of this free resource, become interested in contributing to OSM, and perhaps join the global OSM community.

Global Reef Expedition - Pacific Ocean 2020-06-07

Coastal and Marine cook islands coral fiji french polynesia maps new caledonia palau reef solomon islands tonga

The Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation completed field research for one of the largest coral reef studies in history: the Global Reef Expedition. The Expedition travelled around the globe surveying some of the most remote reefs on the planet, conducting research to assess coral reef ecosystem health and resiliency.

The Global Reef Expedition visited many countries in the Pacific Ocean to assess the health and resiliency of their coral reef ecosystems. See links below for more information, reports and maps.

Climate change and adaptation in the Pacific 2020-05-06

Atmosphere and Climate Biodiversity Coastal and Marine Inland Waters climate change migration oceania pacific

Climate change and migration

CSIRO Bioregions of the South West Pacific Ocean 2020-04-28

Coastal and Marine bioregion csiro

This project has developed sub-regional bioregionalisations for the western-south Pacific Ocean, through expert workshops and novel statistical analysis of physical and biological data. This combines approaches CSIRO developed in Australia, used in the Bay of Bengal (in collaboration with BOBLME) with similar approaches that have been used throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans to derive a single combined bioregionalisation.

This work was carried out as part of the Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative (GOBI), which is supported by the International Climate Initiative (IKI). The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

Refugee 2020-04-29

Built Environment Culture and Heritage immigration migration papua png refugee

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has long been a site of analysis for exploring the links between natural resources and conflict, having been cited as an example in prominent studies of the ‘natural resource curse’ and used as a source of learning in international debates on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Over the past decade, this scholarship has expanded to encompass conflict analysis and peace building. This paper considers four themes identified in the contemporary literature, each with reference to examples drawn from PNG: 1) the costs
of conflict on business and the power of local communities; 2) tensions between the state as regulator and the state as shareholder; 3) the unsatisfactory performance of compensation packages and CSR projects; and 4) an emphasis on the economic dimensions of the natural resource curse in the search for new frameworks. Through a discussion of these themes, the paper calls for the development of natural resource conflict mitigation strategies that are based on a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of existing CSR measures.

Environmental values 2020-04-28

Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage Inland Waters compensation damage assessment environment forest land resources value

This is an economic evaluation of the compensation to which Papua New Guinea’s customary landholders -
wrongly dispossessed through Special Agricultural Business Leases (SABL) - might be entitled if they successfully sued the government. The evaluation involves the calculation of commercial loss but also, and probably moreimport antly, economic equivalent value loss. The framework identifies the relevant heads of value (not just priced transactions) and demonstrates appropriate methods for valuation. It does not pretend to be a price calculator but rather a tool for advocacy.

State of the Environment Toolkit 2019-01-24

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters guideline soe soe guide soe help soe indicators soe template soe toolkit state of the environment toolkit toolkit

State of Environment (SoE) reports provide in-country partners with a process to gather data on current environmental indicators, document their status, and formulate a plan for keeping these indicators on track or developing policies and programs as needed. This SoE Toolkit dataset contains resources that serve as guides to help create up-to-date State of Environment reports.

Supplementary Livelihood Options for Pacific Island Communities: A Review of Experiences 2019-04-30

Built Environment livelihood sl slopic supplementary livelihood

This report presents results from the Supplementary Livelihoods Options for Pacific Island Communities (SLOPIC) study, carried out by the Foundation of the Peoples of the South Pacific International (FSPI) using New Zealand Aid (NZAid) core funds.

The main aim of this study was to review supplementary livelihood (SL) projects that have taken place across the South Pacific over the past 5 to 10 years, with a view to extracting ‘lessons learned’ and identifying the determinants of success. he single most significant finding that emerged from the review process was the lack of documentation of SL efforts.

El Niño and its Relationship to Changing background Conditions in the Tropical Pacific Ocean 2019-05-16

Atmosphere and Climate central pacific climate change models eastern pacific el niño greenhouse ocean pacific ocean

This paper addresses the question of whether the increased occurrence of central Pacific (CP) versus Eastern
Pacific (EP) El Niños is consistent with greenhouse gas forced changes in the background state of the tropical Pacific as inferred from global climate change models.

The analysis uses high‐quality satellite and in situ ocean data combined with wind data from atmospheric reanalyses for the past 31 years (1980–2010).

Marine Protected Area Networks in the Coral Triangle : Development and Lessons 2019-04-30

Coastal and Marine coral triangle corals marine life marine protected areas mpa pacific ocean

The Coral Triangle is a marine area located in the western Pacific Ocean. It includes the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and Solomon Islands.

This book provides a comprehensive summary of the current status of six different MPA networks and their complexities. It analyzes MPA networks through their various stages of development including planning and design, implementation and evaluation as they are emerging within and around the Coral Triangle.

Community Based Actions in Small Island Developing States - Best Practices from the Equator Initiative 2019-05-02

Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters atlantic ocean carribbean community-based actions ecotourism endangered species equator initiative indian ocean marine conservation network developmen reforestation sids small island developing states

This publication features fourteen (14) case studies from small island developing states from the Caribbean,
the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. The stories range from conserving marine resources
and endangered species to initiatives in ecotourism, reforestation and network development.

The is a companion piece to Island Innovations—UNDP and GEF: Leveraging Environment and Energy for the Sustainable Development of SIDS, a joint UNDP and GEF (Global Environment Facility) book launched at the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, 2014.

Disaster response and climate change in the Pacific 2019-04-28

Atmosphere and Climate adaptive capacity climate change cook islands disaster disaster response fiji resilience samoa vanuatu

Disasters, and therefore disaster response, in the Pacific are expected to be affected by climate change. This research addressed this issue, and focused on the immediate humanitarian needs following a disaster, drawing upon adaptive capacity as a concept to assess the resilience of individual organisations and the robustness of the broader system of disaster response..

Four case study countries (Fiji, Cook Islands, Vanuatu and Samoa) were chosen for deeper investigation of the range of issues present in the Pacific.

Atolls – the “biodiversity cool spots” vs hot spots: a critical new focus for research and conservation 2019-05-15

Biodiversity atolls biodiversity biodiversity crisis conservation ecosystem french polynesia kiribati marshall islands tokelau tuamotu archipelago tuvalu

This paper highlights the seriousness of the “biodiversity crisis” on atolls and the need to place greater research and conservation emphasis on atolls and other small island ecosystems. It is based on studies over the past twenty years conducted in the atolls of Tuvalu, Tokelau, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. It stresses that atolls offer some of the greatest opportunities for integrated studies of simplified small-island ecosystems.

Guidance Document on Improving National Reporting by Parties to the Basel Convention 2019-04-30

Land Built Environment Coastal and Marine basel convention guidance hazardous waste national reporting reporting waste

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous and their Disposal (the Basel Convention) is the broadest and most significant international treaty on hazardous and other wastes.

This guidance document is primarily meant to be a practical guide for the national technical officials responsible for the collection of information for the preparation of the national reports that are to be submitted annually to the Secretariat of the Basel Convention.

SPREP core national environment indicators 2019-08-07

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters environmental indicators mea multilateral environment agreements sdg sustainable development goals

This list of indicators was developed through the Inform project at SPREP for use by Pacific Islands countries (PICs) to meet their national and international reporting obligations. The indicators are typically adopted by PICs for their State of Environment reports and are intended to be re-used for a range of MEA and SDG reporting targets. The indicators have been designed to be measurable and repeatable so that countries can track key aspect of environmental health over time. The indicators are mapped to key MEA and SDG reporting targets and can be used with the Indicator Reporting Tool (also developed by the Inform project) to reduce the burden of environmental reporting on PICs. Indicators can be used as is, adapted for countries needs, or used in conjunction with other national-scale indicators selected by PICs. This dataset includes a summary pdf document and an associated excel file with more detail.

Regional coastal susceptibility assessment for the Pacific Islands 2019-05-07

Atmosphere and Climate Coastal and Marine climate change coastal assessment paccsap susceptibility

A major objective of this report was to develop a regional assessment of Pacific Island sensitivity to projected
climate change as a component of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning
(PACCSAP) program. The PACCSAP Program is intended to help partner countries including Cook Islands, Fiji,
Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,
Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu and their communities better understand and respond to climate associated impacts.

MEA Negotiator's Handbook 2019-04-30

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters handbook mea multilateral environmental agreements negotiations negotiator

The number of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and institutions has grown steadily over the last few decades. The work taking place under these agreements and within these institutions is increasing in volume and specificity, and it is having an increasingly substantive impact, particularly as there is an increasing focus on practical implementation.

This edition of the Multilateral Environmental Agreement Negotiator’s Handbook principally to respond to the need for a practical reference tool to assist in addressing the many complex challenges in such negotiations.

MGCP Topographic Dataset 2019-12-04

basemap geo gis spatial topo

The Multi-national Geospatial Co-production Program (MGCP) is a coalition of over 30 countries dedicated to producing high-resolution topographic vector data throughout high interest areas of the world. Data is extracted from high resolution imagery in 1° x 1° cells at a scale of 1:50 000. All data produced must meet a minimum horizontal circular error accuracy of 25m and meet MGCP Technical Reference Documentation (TRD) specifications, which details extraction guidelines and feature catalogues to ensure consistency. Cell and subregion metadata delivered in XML files based on ISO standards 19115 for geographic content and 19139 for XML implementation is available for the data.

Data: boundaries and markers, hydrography (rivers, lakes, waterfalls,…), industry, physiography (soil surface, volcano areas,…), place names, population (buildings,…), transportation (roads, runways,…), utilities, vegetation.

Freedom of Information Legislation in the Pacific - Discussion Paper 2019-11-03

data sharing freedom of information information sharing legislation sdg 16.10

The guide seeks to rekindle debate and discussion about the value of freedom of information laws, as well as to provide a practical roadmap for their introduction, where necessary.
The guide is in three parts.

Part 1 traces developments in the field across the Pacific
Part 2 examines the principles necessary to underpin sound freedom of information laws.
Part 3 identifies 13 key elements needed for proper and effective freedom of information legislation.

Coastal proximity of populations in 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories 2019-10-20

Land Coastal and Marine coastal population

A recently published paper, titled “Coastal proximity of populations in 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories” details the methodology used to undertake the analysis and presents the findings.

Purpose

  • This analysis aims to estimate populations settled in coastal areas in 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTS) using the data currently available. In addition to the coastal population estimates, the study compares the results obtained from the use of national population datasets (census) with those derived from the use of global population grids.

  • Accuracy and reliability from national and global datasets derived results have been evaluated to identify the most suitable options to estimate size and location of coastal populations in the region.

A collaborative project between the Pacific Community (SPC), WorldFish and the University of Wollongong has produced the first detailed population estimates of people living close to the coast in the 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs).

Indigeneous knowledge 2019-09-12

Biodiversity Culture and Heritage indigeneous knowledge new guinea plants

We present the first large-scale synthesis of indigenous knowledge (IK) on New Guinea’s useful plants based on a quantitative review of 488 references and 854 herbarium specimens. Specifically, we assessed (i) spatiotemporal trends in the documentation of IK, (ii) which are New Guinea’s most useful ecosystems and plant taxa, (iii) what use categories have been better studied, and (iv) which are the best studied indigenous groups. Overall, our review integrates40,376 use reports and 19,948 plant uses for 3434 plant species. We find that despite a significant increase in ethnobotanical studies since the first reports of 1885, all islands still remain
under-investigated. Lowland and montane rainforests are the best studied habitats; legumes, palms, and figs are the most cited plant families; and Ficus, Pandanus, and Syzygiumare the most useful genera. Medicinal uses have received the greatest attention and non-native species have the highest cross-cultural consensus for medicine, underscoring the culturally enriching role of non-native taxa to New Guinea’s pharmacopeia. Of New Guinea’s approximately 1100 indigenous groups, 217 are mentioned in the literature, and non-endangered groups remain better studied. We conclude that IK can contribute significantly to meet rising demands to make New
Guinea’s landscapes “multifunctional” and boost the green economy, but ambitious strategies will still be needed to mainstream IK and improve its documentation.

Mine tailings 2019-09-12

Land Built Environment Coastal and Marine mine papua new guinea png tailings

This report presents a world-wide inventory of operating mines that dispose of mine tailings to marine and riverine waters and a review of what is known about the environmental impacts of those discharges. The report was commissioned by the International Maritime Organization, specifically the IMO Secretariat for the London Convention 1972 and the 1996 London Protocol, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-Global Programme of Action.

Pitohui 2019-09-12

Biodiversity bird dna png poisonour ptohui

Mu¨ llerian mimicry rings are remarkable symbiotic species assemblages in which multiple members share a similar phenotype. However, their evolutionary origin remains poorly understood. Although gene flow among species has been shown to generate mimetic patterns in some Heliconius butterflies,mimicry is believed to be due to true convergencewithout gene flowinmany other cases.We investigated the evolutionary history of multiple members of a passerinemimicry ring in the poisonous Papuan pitohuis. Previous phylogenetic evidence indicates that the aposematic coloration shared by many, but not all, members of this genus is ancestral and has only been retained bymembers of the mimicry ring.Using a newly assembled genome and thousands of genomic
DNA markers, we demonstrate gene flow from the hooded pitohui (Pitohui dichrous) into the southern variable pitohui (Pitohui uropygialis), consistent with shared patterns of aposematic coloration. The vicinity of putatively introgressed loci is significantly enriched for genes that are important inmelanin pigment expression and toxin resistance, suggesting that gene flowmay have been instrumental in the sharingofplumagepatterns andtoxicity. These results indicate that interspeciesgeneflowmaybe amore general mechanism in generating mimicry rings than hitherto appreciated.

ADB Health 2019-09-12

Built Environment health health care png rural urban

The project will strengthen the rural health system in selected areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG) by increasing the coverage and quality of primary health care (PHC) in partnership with both state and nonstate service providers through supporting the Government of PNG in implementing the National Health Plan (NHP) as it relates to rural health. It will build on the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) experience in strengthening health service delivery in rural areas of PNG.1 The project will cover two districts in each of the following eight provinces: Eastern Highlands, East Sepik, Enga, Milne Bay, Western Highlands, West New Britain, Morobe, and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville. The approximate total number of beneficiaries in the 16 districts will be 1.2 million.

ADP Port 2019-09-12

Built Environment cargo lae png port resettlement tidal basin

The Project will expand the cargo handling capacity of Lae port, improve the livelihood of those directly or indirectly affected, and reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Lae. It will finance (i) the construction of a tidal basin (700 x 400 meters), a multipurpose berth, and terminal works including all buildings, storage areas, roads, drainage, water, electricity, and sewerage services, with built-in flexibility to increase the capacity further in a cost-effective manner; (ii) resettlement and livelihood improvement; (iii) consulting services in project
management, construction supervision, financial management, resettlement, and socioeconomic monitoring; and (iv) gender-responsive programs for HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention.

ADB Roads 2019-09-12

Land Biodiversity Built Environment Inland Waters adb highlands png roads

The Highlands Region of Papua New Guinea (PNG), comprising of the Provinces of Western Highlands, Jiwaka, Southern Highlands, Hela, Eastern Highlands, Enga and Simbu, is a major contributor to the PNG economy through its agricultural production and mineral resources. A well maintained road network is essential to facilitate the movement of goods and people. The Government of PNG (GoPNG) has made significant investment in improving the road network but a lack of maintenance has resulted in deterioration of the roads such an extent that the Highlands Core Road Network (HCRN) is now in poor condition.

ADB Civil Aviation 2019-09-12

Built Environment adb airport civil aviation national airport corporation png

The National Airports Corporation (NAC) is the executing Agency (EA) of the Civil Aviation Development Investment Program (CADIP) in Papua New Guinea. The EA has set up a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) headed by a Program Director to implement CADIP. The PIU is comprised of a team of designated designed engineers and other support staff for the initial scoping of works to design and planning (including tendering processes) to the execution of the civil works and reporting to the stake holders. CADIP ensures compliance to ADB and GoPNG requirements at all times.

National Marine Conservation Assessment for Papua New Guinea 2019-09-12

Coastal and Marine conservation fisheries marine png

Papua New Guinea is committed to the establishment of a network of marine protected areas
to fulfil national and international commitments. In order to assist this, the conservation
priority areas analysis identified a range of areas of high conservation interest in the PNG
marine environment, based on the principles of comprehensiveness, adequacy,
representation and resilience (CARR). The analysis collated available national-scale data on
biodiversity features and biodiversity surrogates.

Mangrove 2019-09-12

Biodiversity Coastal and Marine guide book mangrove png

In Papua New Guinea (PNG), many coastal communities depend on mangroves for their livelihood. Mangrove trees have been harvested over generations for construction materials and firewood. Mangroves provide a
habitat for fish, crabs, shellfish, birds, and reptiles. Mangroves also provide a natural defense against storm surges, coastal erosion, and coastal flooding. An analysis conducted by government’s limate Change and Development Authority (CCDA) has highlighted community-based mangrove planting as a cost-effective measure for coastal communities. Unfortunately, overexploitation and degradation of mangrove areas means communities are losing this protection.

Pacific Energy Update 2019-09-12

Built Environment electricity energy pacific png power

The 14 developing member countries (DMCs) of the Pacific Department of the Asi an Development Bank (ADB) cover a wide diversity. Populations range from the top three countries, representing 87% of the region’s population, to the remaining 11 countries, with a total of less than 1.5 million people. The region covers 15% of the globe’s surface, with remote countries ranging from large single landmass entities to smaller countries covering over 900 islands. The region will suffer from climate change impacts such as rising sea levels and increased storm severity, even while the region is among the world’s least contributors of greenhouse gasses. Theregion faces unique challenges in building clean, reliable, and cost-efficient power systems that provide universal supply required for human development.

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 2018. HOW TECHNOLOGY AFFECTS JOBS 2019-09-12

Built Environment asia economy outlook pacific png

The economic growth outlook for developing Asia remains vibrant. AsianDevelopment Outlook 2018 foresees continued momentum after growth accelerated to 6.1% in 2017. The region is expected to expand by 6.0% in
2018 and 5.9% in 2019. Excluding Asia’s high-income newly industrialized economies, the prospects for growth are even higher, at 6.5% in 2018 and 6.4% in 2019. Traction for economic expansion will come from strong external demand, which is supported by a further pickup in growth this year in the major industrial economies, and robust domestic demand. Growth in the People’sRepublic of China is seen to continue its gradual moderation, to 6.6% this year and 6.4% next, as the authorities take actions to address financial risks, while India recovers from a temporary growth setback in2017, rebounding to 7.3% in 2018 and 7.6% in 2019.

Coral Triangle Initiative 2019-09-12

Biodiversity Coastal and Marine aquaculture coral triangle economics fisheries

The Economics of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Coral Triangle (EFACT) is the first report of its kind that consolidates primary and secondary information on fisheries and aquaculture using a regional lens and analytical tools from economics. The EFACT is an output of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) technical assistance—Regional Cooperation on Knowledge Management, Policy, and Institutional Support to the Coral
Triangle Initiative (CTI).

Coral Triangle Initiative 2019-09-12

Biodiversity Coastal and Marine aquaculture coral triangle economics fisheries

The Economics of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Coral Triangle (EFACT) is the first report of its kind that consolidates primary and secondary information on fisheries and aquaculture using a regional lens and analytical tools from economics. The EFACT is an output of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) technical assistance—Regional Cooperation on Knowledge Management, Policy, and Institutional Support to the Coral
Triangle Initiative (CTI).

This technical note is intended to support climate risk assessment (CRA) experts, in particular, those undertaking the early stages of project development. Time and resources could be saved by attaching this document to terms of reference issued to CRA co 2019-09-12

Atmosphere and Climate Biodiversity adaptation asia climate pacific png weather

This technical note is intended to support climate risk assessment (CRA) experts, in particular, those undertaking the early stages of project development. Time and resources could be saved by attaching this document to terms of reference issued to CRA consultants. However, there is a limit to which globally accessible, open source
data can meet the detailed information needs of local adaptation projects. This note supplements rather than replaces efforts to gather relevant climate information from government agencies and counterparts, especially during the project concept phase.

ADB 2019-09-12

Land Biodiversity Built Environment asia pacific constraint development economy gdp global market png

The gross domestic product (GDP) of Papua New Guinea (PNG) grew at an annual average rate of nearly 7% between 2007 and 2010, and is expected to perform even better in 2011. Moreover, the economy remained unaffected even at the peak of the global economic crisis, when most other major Southeast Asian and Pacific economies recorded low or negative GDP growth rates. Sound macroeconomic management in the recent past and planned initiatives such as the PNG LNG Project indicate that the economy will continue to perform well in the medium to long run. Nevertheless, the country faces a number of development challenges. Per capita GDP and its growth rate remain low. The economy is heavily dependent on the mining and resource sectors, and hence remains vulnerable to fluctuations in the global markets. A majority of the people in the labor force work in the informal sector, and opportunities for productive employment in the formal sector continue to grow very slowly. Provision of public services, including education, health, and safe drinking water and sanitation, remains
inadequate, especially in the rural areas.

PNG: Multi-tranche Financing Facility for the Sustainable Highlands Highway Investment Program 2019-09-12

Land adaptation adb climate change png vulnerability

The proposed Sustainable Highlands Highway Infrastructure Program (SHHIP) is envisaged as a ten- year, multi-partner, multi-tranche financing facility aiming to restore and upgrade the Highlands Highway in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The executing agency is the PNG Department of Works (DoW). The initial climate screening of SHHIP using AWARE determined the Investment Program to be at medium risk to climate and climate change. As a result, ADB procedures require that a climate risk and vulnerability assessment (CRVA) be undertaken during the design stage. This report presents the findings of the CRVA. Additional evidence and methodologies are presented in Annexes; while photographic evidence is presented in the Appendix.

KOKODA INITIATIVE – STREAM B2 ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKTOP STUDY 2019-09-12

Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage acrhaeology koiari kokoda laloki naoro-brown sogeri

This report was commissioned by the the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC, Papua New Guinea) as part of work under the Joint Understanding between the Australian and Papua New Guinea governments. The report is a Desktop Study, with inputs from preliminary consultations and fact-finding in Port Moresby, namely at the National Museum and Art Gallery, Papua New Guinea and University of Papua New Guinea Library, but also at the National Library, National Archives and Australian National University Libraries in Canberra, Australia. This report also outlines the utility of aerial imagery from early surveys obtained since 1956 as a tool for archaeological interpretation within the AOI.

Mapping Mining to SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) 2019-09-10

Land mining sdg sustainable development goals

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent the world’s plan of action for social inclusion, environmental sustainability and economic development. The mining industry has an unprecedented opportunity to mobilize significant human, physical, technological and financial resources to advance the SDGs.

Mining is a global industry and is often located in remote, ecologically sensitive and less-developed areas that include many indigenous lands and territories. When managed appropriately, it can create jobs, spur innovation and bring investment and infrastructure at a game-changing scale over long time horizons. Yet, if managed poorly, mining can also lead to environmental degradation, displaced populations, inequality and increased conflict, among other challenges.

By mapping the linkages between mining and the SDGs, the aim of this Atlas is to encourage mining companies of all sizes to incorporate relevant SDGs into their business and operations, validate their current efforts and spark new ideas.

Sex affiliation and its implications in Koiari 2019-09-11

Land Culture and Heritage culture female koiari male png sex affiliation social organisation

THE present paper discusses a form of social classification which may be referred to provisionally as sex affiliation. The essence of it is that male children are classed with their father's group and female children with their mother's. I shall first endeavour to give an account, in its more or less relevant aspects, of the social organization of the people among whom this sex affiliation is practised; after that we may discuss the practice itself in greater detail and consider its implications.

The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations 2019-09-11

Biodiversity conservation hunting management wild meat wildlife

Hunting is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but a systematic large-scale estimate of hunting-induced defaunation is lacking. We synthesized 176 studies to quantify huntinginduced declines of mammal and bird populations across the tropics. Bird and mammal abundances declined by 58% (25 – 76 %) and by 83% (72 – 90%) in hunted compared to unhunted areas. Bird and mammal populations were depleted within 7 and 40 km from hunters’ access points (roads and settlements). Additionally, hunting pressure was higher in areas with better accessibility to major towns where wild meat could be traded. Mammal population densities were lower outside protected areas, particularly due to commercial hunting. Strategies to sustainably manage wild meat hunting in both protected and unprotected tropical ecosystems are urgently needed to avoid further defaunation.

PhD Thesis on Endemic Birds in Papua New Guinea’s Montane Forests: Human Use and Conservation. 2019-09-11

Biodiversity birds of paradise brids conservation hunting png trade tropics

Escalating anthropogenic impacts on tropical biodiversity have increased the vulnerability of endemic species. Selective harvesting of species is one of the major threats to birds and mammal species in the tropics. Many indigenous cultures, however, have long established cultural associations with certain species. The hunting and trade of species have been mainly for subsistence and socio-cultural ties within their communities. However, contemporary threats associated with human population increase from within such societies and externally driven demand such as wildlife trafficking exacerbate the pressure particularly for vulnerable species.

Wild meat: the bigger picture 2019-09-11

Biodiversity Culture and Heritage bush meat tropics

Massive overhunting of wildlife for meat across the humid tropics is now causing local extinctions of
numerous species. Rural people often rely heavily on wild meat, but, in many areas, this important source of
food and income is either already lost or is being rapidly depleted. The problem can only be tackled by looking at
the wider economic and institutional context within which such hunting occurs, from household economics
to global terms of trade. Conservation efforts must be placed within a landscape context; a mosaic of hunted
and no-take areas might balance conservation with continued subsistence use. Successful conservation of
hunted wildlife requires collaboration at all scales, involving local people, resource extraction companies,
governments and scientists.

THE EXPORT AND RE-EXPORT OF CITES-LISTED BIRDS FROM THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 2019-09-11

Biodiversity brids fauna png species trade

Large numbers of birds, including more than 68 000 wild-caught and reportedly captive-bred CITES-listed individuals, were imported from the Solomon Islands in the 2000s. The vast majority were imported by Malaysia and Singapore and often re-exported, particularly in the case of Singapore. In terms of species composition, there were a few species native to the Solomon Islands, however the majority (77%) were non-native species from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. 13 736 individuals of these non-native species were exported as “captive-bred”. However, it is unclear how the parent stock of these captive-bred birds was acquired as there is no documented export of these CITES-listed species to the Solomon Islands. In terms of the number of individual birds involved in the trade, the majority of exports were species native to the Solomon Islands (54 793). Of these native bird species, 13 692 were declared as wild-caught and 41 101 were reportedly captive-bred. These large numbers of native and non-native captive-bred birds suggest the existence of commercial breeding facilities on the Solomon Islands capable of housing thousands of breeding pairs.

Framework for assessing compensation for the wrongful loss of customary land in Papua New Guinea 2019-09-11

Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage calculation compensation land loss png sabl valuation

This is an economic evaluation of the compensation to which Papua New Guinea’s customary landholders -
wrongly dispossessed through Special Agricultural Business Leases (SABL) - might be entitled if they successfully sued the government. The evaluation involves the calculation of commercial loss but also, and probably more importantly, economic equivalent value loss. The framework identifies the relevant heads of value (not just priced transactions) and demonstrates appropriate methods for valuation. It does not pretend to be a price calculator but rather a tool for advocacy.

STATE OF SAFEGUARDING PNG’S INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE 2019-09-11

Culture and Heritage culture png

Our cultures and traditions are deeply entrenched in every Papua New Guinean, in our families, our homes and basically in our way of life. Our cultures and traditions are also preserved and kept alive through our arts, paintings, sculptures, carvings, dances and songs, folklores, architecture and literature. In fact, our cultures and traditions apply in all aspects of our lives. Culture is the very essence of our existence - it reflects our history, language, tradition and our beliefs. However, with the wind of globalization and change, our cultures and traditions do not remain static but evolves overtime.

Talking it Through Responses to Sorcery and Witchcraft Beliefs and Practices in Melanesia 2019-09-11

Culture and Heritage belief culture melanesia png sorcesary witchcraft

The belief that illness, death and misfortune of all sorts is frequently caused by the deliberate interventions of individuals with special powers or magical knowledge is pervasive throughout Melanesia. As a result, sorcery and witchcraft beliefs and practices exert a powerful influence on many aspects of day-to-day life, as well as being significant vectors for community tensions, conflict and violence. Moreover, rather than disappearing under the influence of Christianity and modern life, sorcery and witchcraft practices and beliefs are proving extremely resilient, with many claiming that they are increasing and spreading.

MANGROVE REHABILITATION FOR SUSTAINABLY-MANAGED HEALTHY FORESTS (MARSH): FINAL REPORT 2019-09-11

Land Coastal and Marine mangrove marsh pacific png

The project Mangrove Rehabilitation for Sustainably Managed Healthy Forests (MARSH) commenced on October 1st 2012 and ended on September 30th 2015. The project was initially supposed to be implemented over five years in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. In the first quarter of Year 3 the donor decided to change the focus from community based to national interventions for greater impact and to limit the rest of the activities of the third year to PNG alone. The project life span was thus shortened and there was nothing started in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.

Empowering the Poor in a Changing Climate Experiences from UNDP Supported Initiatives on Adaptation 2019-09-11

Atmosphere and Climate Biodiversity Coastal and Marine climate adaptation climate change pacific undp

UNDP has been working during the last decade to support countries to transition to green, inclusive, climate-resilient development paths. More than US$790 million in grant financing from the Global Environment Facility-managed Least Developed Countries Fund and the Special Climate Change Fund, as well as the Kyoto Protocol’s Adaptation Fund and bilateral finance, have been mobilized to assist countries to achieve their adaptation
priorities. These resources build on and complement over US$2.5 billion in co-financing that has also been invested.

Climate change in Papua New Guinea 2019-09-11

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine climate climate change oceania png

This chapter provides a brief description of Papua New Guinea, its past and present climate as well as projections for the future. The climate observation network and the availability of atmospheric and oceanic
data records are outlined. The annual mean climate, seasonal cycles and the influences of large-scale climate
features such as the West Pacific Monsoon and patterns of climate variability (e.g. the El Niño‑Southern
Oscillation) are analysed and discussed. Observed trends and analysis of air temperature, rainfall,
extreme events (including tropical cyclones), sea-surface temperature, ocean acidification, mean and
extreme sea levels are presented. These projections are presented along with confidence levels based on
expert judgement by Pacific Climate Change Science Program (PCCSP) scientists. The chapter concludes
with a summary table of projections (Table 11.4). Important background information, including an explanation
of methods and models, is provided in Chapter 1. For definitions of other terms refer to the Glossary. Projections for air and sea-surface temperature, rainfall, sea level, ocean acidification and extreme events for the 21st century are provided.

Prehistoric stone artefacts from Enga and the implication of links between the highlands, lowlands and islands for early agriculture in Papua New Guinea 2019-09-11

Land Culture and Heritage agriculture enga highlands png prehistory stone artefacts

Two of the unanswered questions of Papua New Guinea prehistory are: (1) whether agriculture was present
in the mid-Holocene not only in the highlands but also in the lowlands and Bismarck Archipelago and (2)whether the presence of agriculture might have been influenced by interaction between these regions. This paper addresses these questions through an analysis of prehistoric stone mortars, pestles and figures, which hold information on both style and function.

Peat in the mountains of New Guinea 2019-09-11

Atmosphere and Climate Land highlands mountain new guinea papua new guinea peat peatland png

Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy alley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG) there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island) probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

Language 2019-09-11

Culture and Heritage human dispersal language migration new guinea papua new guinea

How can linguistics contribute to our knowledge about human dispersals in the distant past? We will consider the case of New Guinea and surrounding islands, one of the most linguistically diverse areas of the world. This study is a follow-up on the Eurocores OMLL project Pioneers of Island Melanesia, reported in Dunn et al. (2005).

A possible scenario would assume at least two major migration (Summerhayes 2007, see above) waves through Wallacea into Sahul, perhaps the oldest one, ~40,000 BP, following the northern route (Sulawesi, Halmahera, Bird’s Head and further to the east along the north coast), the ancestors of non-TNG, and a second one, ~20,000 BP, through the Lesser Sundas directly onto present-day north Australia and Aru island, with a northward trek into the Highlands, the ancestors of TNG. This scenario would have the TAP and, possibly, the South Papuan families as stay-behind descendants of the TNG precursors.

Lapita sites in the Central Province of mainland Papua New Guinea 2019-09-11

Culture and Heritage ceremic lapita papua papua new guinea pot trade

For over forty years, archaeologists working along Papua New Guinea’s southern coastline have sought evidence for early ceramics and its relationship with Lapita wares of Island Melanesia. Failing to find any such evidence of pottery more than 2000 BP, and largely based on the excavation of eight early pottery-bearing sites during the late 1960s into the early 1970s, synchronous colonization some 2000 BP along 500km of the south Papuan coastline by post-Lapita ceramic manufacturers has been posited. This paper presents conclusive evidence for the resence of Lapita ceramics along the Papuan south coast between c. 2500 and 2900 cal. BP, thereby indicating that current models of colonization by ceramicists for the region need to be rethought. We conclude with a brief reflection as to why these Lapita horizons were missed by previous researchers.

The Hiri in History 2019-09-11

Culture and Heritage hiri hiri trade papua png

In days gone by some of the Motu-speaking peoples around Port Moresby used to go on annual trading expeditions to the Gulf of Papua. There they would exchange with the inhabitants of that area pots and other valuables for sago and canoe logs. These expeditions were called hiri, and were not only spectacular in terms of the number, nature and size of the sailing craft involved and the cargoes they carried but also very important economically and in other ways to the Motu and others directly or indirectly involved. Despite this importance, however, and despite the fact that the main aspects of this trade have been known for a long time, there are still many aspects of it about which not so much is known, or which have not been recorded. Some of these aspects involve empirical questions which have to do with the day the hiri were organized and operated, particularly at the inter personal level; others are historical questions of unknown depth which can only be answered, if at all, by
painstaking research involving investigators from a number of disciplines.

Karawari caves Precinct 2019-09-11

Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage cave paintings east sepik province karawari cave papua new guinea rock shelter

Midway up the slopes of the Andogoro, Moirutapa, and Kundiman mountains that rise up from the surrounding floodplains and separate East Sepik Province from Enga and Western Highlands Provinces in Papua New Guinea, are the traditional settlements of the Upland Arafundi people (Roscoe & Telban 2004:94). Galleries of stencils
adorn the walls of caves once used as spirit houses and shelters by the Upland Arafundi people. In the limestone caves they buried their dead, initiated young men, and sheltered from their enemies. Common among the galleries of stencils are hands made by blowing, spraying or spitting a mouthful of ochre over an outstretched hand. The hand stencils are enduring personal signatures on the cave walls. These hands and other stencils (e.g. kina shells, cassowary feet and other prints) are yet to be dated but the extensive nature of the painted galleries that adorn the walls of these rock shelters, as well as other living traditions (haus tambarans, carved wood and stone figurines, bark paintings etc.) provide real insight into the culture and symbolic conventions of the semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited the caves.

EXOGENOUS CULTURAL CHANGE IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE GENERATIONAL CHANGE: THE CASE FROM PAPUA NEW GUINEA 2019-09-11

Culture and Heritage cultural change generation change generation gap language papua new guinea png

An analysis of cultural change and generation gaps in the local community of the Nungon ethnic group in the state of Papua New Guinea will be the subject of the study. This ethnic group came into contact with Europeans for the first time in the mid-1930s. The pace of cultural changes within the community has been gradually increasing. For example, the local animistic cult has been replaced with Christianity, school attendance has been introduced in the villages of Nungon, travel opportunities have become more accessible, and as the mobile signal has recently been introduced, Nungon residents can now connect to the internet and access information about the globalised world. Those who remember the colonial period still live in the community and many of them are still illiterate, with only limited knowledge of Pidgin English, the lingua franca of Papua New Guinea. On the other hand, the youngest generation can study in cities or experiment with social media and share information there. The aim of the paper is not only to show intergenerational differences, but also to document the local history and its ties to particular generations and show the role the generational memory played in illiterate societies
with unwritten history. The only existing written and photographic documents were created by colonial officers. The study will show the transformation of the Nungon community from the time of photographs kept in boxes to the youngest generation, which keeps photographs in mobile phones and shares them on social media.

Coupled climate and sea-level changes deduced from Huon Peninsula coral terraces of the last ice age 2019-09-11

Atmosphere and Climate Land climate change history huon peninsula ice age morobe province png

Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, is a tectonically unstable, uplifting shoreline ringed by emergent coral terraces. The terraces were formed during episodes of rapid sea-level rise when corals constructed large, discrete coral platforms that were subsequently uplifted. Uranium series ages of four prominent Huon Peninsula last glacial (OIS 3) coral terraces coincide with the timing of major North Atlantic climate reversals at intervals of 6000^7000 yr between 30 000 yr and 60 000 yr ago. Terrace elevations, when combined with uplift, indicate 10^15-m high sea-level excursions at these times. We attribute the growth of the terraces directly to sea-level rises arising from ice-calving episodes from major North Atlantic ice-sheets and the Antarctic ice-sheet that precipitated extremes of cold climate called Heinrich events. These periods are associated with major discharges of land-based ice and enhanced concentrations of ice-rafted debris in deep-sea cores. Sea-levels at this time were 60^90 m lower than present.

Oil Palm 2019-09-10

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity palm oil small holders

Oil palm prices may hold up in the medium term, with strong demand from India and China. Yet, like other non-oil commodities, oil palm prices are likely to remain volatile, and to experience a long term relative price decline. (Chapter 3). World prices are not the main problem for small farmers in PNG. Three factors are likely to place a ceiling on the economic benefits for small farmers: (i) small farmers remain at the highly competitive end of a large grower market, with little market power, keeping them as ‘price takers’; (ii) a large monopsony (all
consuming), price-fixing corporate mill dominates small farmers, in the PNG ‘nucleus estate and smallholder’ model; and (iii) farmers in the export oriented oil palm business (unlike producers for local markets) are at the bottom end of a very long value chain, where other more powerful participants will always claim the largest ‘slice’ of value in the industry. (Chapter 3). International Finance Institutions (IFIs) – in particular the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank – AusAID and the PNG Government have subsidised and promoted involvement in oil palm in PNG. Their interests (eg. corporate profit, commodification of land and gaining foreign exchange) are not identical to those of small farmers. The IFIs have pushed the interests of foreign-dominated export industries, with less regard for small farmers. (Chapter 4.

Oil palm and small holder farmers 2019-09-10

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity No keyword provided

Oil palm prices may hold up in the medium term, with strong demand from India and China. Yet, like other non-oil commodities, oil palm prices are likely to remain volatile, and to experience a long term relative price decline. (Chapter 3). 2. World prices are not the main problem for small farmers in PNG. Three factors are likely to place a ceiling on the economic benefits for small farmers: (i) small farmers remain at the highly competitive end of a large grower market, with little market power, keeping them as ‘price takers’; (ii) a large monopsony (all consuming), price-fixing corporate mill dominates small farmers, in the PNG ‘nucleus estate and smallholder’ model; and (iii) farmers in the export oriented oil palm business (unlike producers for local markets) are at the bottom end of a very long value chain, where other more powerful participants will always claim the largest ‘slice’ of value in the industry. (Chapter 3). International Finance Institutions (IFIs) – in particular the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank – AusAID and the PNG Government have subsidised and promoted involvement in oil palm in PNG. Their interests (eg. corporate profit, commodification of land and gaining foreign exchange) are not identical to those of small farmers. The IFIs have
pushed the interests of foreign-dominated export industries, with less regard for small farmers. (Chapter 4)

History of Agriculture 2019-09-10

Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage No keyword provided

The history of agriculture in PNG is about 10 000 years old. This history is reviewed here in the context of 50 000 years of human occupation of the Australia – New Guinea region. 1 More is known about what has happened nearer to the present, especially since 1870, than about the distant past. Much of the early history (prehistory) of PNG was unknown until about 50 years ago, but since 1959 there has been a lot of research on the prehistory of PNG, with a major focus on agriculture. However, this is a rapidly evolving field of study and our understanding of
the history of agriculture in PNG is still incomplete. The information that is summarised here will be expanded and modified by future research.

Food production, consumption and imports 2019-09-10

Land Biodiversity No keyword provided

Food is made up of three major components – proteins, carbohydrates and fats – and each is necessary for growth and healthy living. Although all three provide energy, carbohydrates, which consist of starches and sugars, provide the highest proportion of the food energy (or fuel) that human bodies need to function. Protein, used for building and repairing the body, comes from animal products such as meat, fish, and milk, but also from grains and vegetable foods. Small quantities of fats and oils are also important in a balanced diet. They provide more food energy per gram than either carbohydrates or protein.

Status of management of plant and animal genetic resources in Papua New Guinea 2019-09-10

Land Biodiversity No keyword provided

PNG has a diverse and rich resource base for plants, animal and aquaculture genetic resources used for food and agriculture. These resources suppor the livelihood of the majority of rural population in the country. The safeguarding, maintainence and sustainable uses of this genetic diversity is essential for the current as well as livelihood security

Land suitability assessment for selected crops in PNG 2019-09-10

Land Biodiversity Built Environment Inland Waters No keyword provided

The Papua New Guinea Resource Information System (PNGRIS) is a micro-computer-based georeferenced
database containing information on natural resources, population distribution, rural land use, small-holder economic activity and land use potential (Bellamy 1986). It is compiled at 1:500 000 scale for approximately 5000 Resource Mapping Units (RMUs) covering the entire land area of Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Two potential applications of PNGRIS are:
1) identification of areas of PNG which, given certain criteria, would be suitable for particular types of land use, and
2) determination of the most suitable type(s) of land use for specific land areas.

PNG Sustainable Agricultural Commodities_Final Report_070616_Clean 2019-09-10

Land Biodiversity No keyword provided

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the most significant areas of tropical forest in the world. These forests are, however, under threat from commercial logging, clearing of land for agricultural commodities, mining or the expansion of small-scale agriculture to meet the livelihood needs of the country's largely rural population.

This study, commissioned by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) REDD+ Readiness project, focuses on assessing the business case for enacting a set of policies and measures to reduce the future impact of key agricultural commodities on forest cover in Papua New Guinea, while allowing for ongoing growth within these sectors.

It finds that while PNG has ambitious plans to increase agriculture production through a combination of increased productivity (by 60%) and increase land under cultivation (by 180%) the balance of these approaches vary by commodity. Developments within the cocoa and coffee sectors are focused on improvements in productivity while the palm oil sector is focused on increasing production through expansion of the area under cultivation and represents the most significant threat to levels of forest cover. Indeed, the area under cultivation estimated at 150,000 ha is already set to more than double in the short term based on expansion of existing projects and increase by 10-fold to 1.5 million ha by 2030 according to government plans.

Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea 2019-09-10

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Agriculture is the most important activity carried out by the vast majority of Papua New Guineans. For most people, agriculture fills their lives, physically, culturally, economically, socially and nutritionally. Yet agriculture is the most undervalued and misunderstood part of PNG life (see Twenty myths about PNG agriculture, page 1). The reasons for this are partly because mineral and oil exports make PNG comparatively wealthy for a developing
country; partly because agriculture is practised in the countryside, away from towns, and is therefore largely ‘invisible’ to urban people and international visitors; and partly because agriculture is viewed as not being modern’.

ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY SECTOR OUTLOOK STUDY II 2019-09-10

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage No keyword provided

Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) forests and forestry have played an important role in the livelihoods of the people of the country for many years. Forests have provided a source for food, fruits and nuts, building materials, medicinal plants, habitats for refuge and a wealth of other services.
Increasingly throughout the years, and more so since the end of the Second World War, forests in the country have been exploited for their wood products, more particularly the timber. While still maintaining the main role of sustaining the livelihoods of rural people, forests have increasingly become the main source of revenue for the people (landowners), the Government and the timber industry.
There are many factors that have impacted on forests and forestry, but the key ones are the increasing population and people’s demands for development – due to lack of basic goods and services in the rural areas where most or all the forests are found. The increasing numbers of people need to be fed and hence more forests are being cleared each year, through shifting cultivation, to make gardens for food.

Bulldozing Progress: Human rights abusses and corruption in Papua New Guinea's large sacle logging industry 2019-09-10

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Culture and Heritage No keyword provided

Tropical forestry and logging are complex subjects, encompassing a range of diffi cult issues, including land ownership, the sustainability of natural resources, the impact on climate change, the social and economic impact of logging on isolated and relatively untouched, subsistence sector communities, and the protection of the basic rights of the people concerned.
In our increasingly globalised world what happens with forestry and the environment in any country is a matter of international, not just national, interest. This is refl ected in the United Kingdom Government’s international priorities, two of which have relevance to forestry viz:
• Promoting sustainable development and poverty reduction underpinned by human rights, democracy, good governance and protection of the environment; and
• Achieving climate security by promoting a faster transition to a sustainable low carbon global economy.

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Country Report Papua New Guinea 2019-09-10

Land Biodiversity No keyword provided

FAO, at the request of its member countries, regularly monitors the world´s forests and their management and uses through the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA). This country report is prepared as a contribution to the FAO publication, the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 (FRA 2015).

Draft PNG National Ocean Policy- 13th July 2019 2019-09-10

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The development of Papua New Guinea National Oceans Policy is at an important juncture of the country’s history in that we recognize our land resources are gradually being exploited at a rapid pace in achieving our country’s Vision by 2050, responsible sustainable development measure; and, shift of the Government and our communities’ focus into the ocean sector must be embraced as the long term measure- “a No Regrets Option”
The design, planning and development of the PNG National Ocean Policy, is a 10 years policy from 2020 to 2030, a collective effort by all Papua New Guineans and friends after consultations, reviewing and assessing the numerous reports, laws, literature to develop this policy.

Infrastructure expansion challenges sustainable development in Papua New Guinea 2019-09-10

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity No keyword provided

The island of New Guinea hosts the third largest expanse of tropical rainforest on the planet. Papua New Guinea—comprising the eastern half of the island—plans to nearly double its national road network (from 8,700 to 15,000 km) over the next three years, to spur economic growth. We assessed these plans using fine-scale biophysical and environmental data. We identified numerous environmental and socioeconomic risks associated with these projects, including the dissection of 54 critical biodiversity habitats and diminished forest connectivity across large expanses of the island. Key habitats of globally endangered species including Goodfellow’s tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi), Matchie’s tree kangaroo (D. matschiei), and several birds of paradise would also be bisected by roads and opened up to logging, hunting, and habitat conversion. Many planned roads would traverse rainforests and carbon-rich peatlands, contradicting Papua New Guinea’s international commitments to promote low-carbon development and forest conservation for climate-change mitigation. Planned roads would also create new deforestation hotspots via rapid expansion of logging, mining, and oil-palm plantations. Our study suggests that several planned road segments in steep and high-rainfall terrain would be extremely expensive in terms of construction and maintenance costs. This would create unanticipated economic challenges and public debt. The net environmental, social, and economic risks of several planned projects—such as the Epo-Kikori link, Madang-
Baiyer link, Wau-Malalaua link, and some other planned projects in the Western and East Sepik Provinces—could easily outstrip their overall benefits. Such projects should be reconsidered under broader environmental, economic, and social grounds, rather than short-term economic considerations.

GEOSS Portal 2019-08-29

geo map maps satellite spatial

The GEOSS Portal is an online map-based user interface which allows users to discover and access Earth observation data and resources from different providers from all over the world.
The portal is implemented and operated by the European Space Agency and provides a single internet discovery and access point to the ever-growing quantities of heterogeneous collections of Earth observations from satellites, airplanes, drones and in-situ sensors at global, regional and local scales through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
The GEOSS is a social and software ecosystem connecting a large array of observing systems, data systems and processing services to strengthen monitoring of the state of the Earth. It facilitates data and information accessibility and interoperability to support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agenda and the Disaster Risk Reduction.

Mapping Ocean Wealth Explorer 2019-08-29

Biodiversity Coastal and Marine blue carbon coastal protection coral reef fisheries mangrove map maps recreation spatial tourism

The Mapping Ocean Wealth data viewer is a live online resource for sharing understanding of the value of marine and coastal ecosystems to people. It includes global maps, regionally-specific studies, reference data, and a number of “apps” providing key data analytics. Maps and apps can be opened according to key themes or geographies. The navigator the left of the maps enables you to add or remove any additional map layers as you explore. Information keys explain how the maps were made and provide additional links. Further information and resources can be found on Oceanwealth.org

  • Recreation and Tourism App - Explore the value of healthy ecosystems to the tourism industry
  • Natural Coastal Protection App - Discover the coastal protection benefits of coral reefs around the world
  • Blue Carbon App - View Mangrove Carbon Storage
  • Coral Reef Fisheries App - Learn about the status of coral reef fisheries
  • Regional Planning
  • Mangrove Restoration

Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) 2019-08-29

aerial bathymetry exposure hazard imagery landuse loss map satellite soil spatial topography

The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) aims to provide the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) with disaster risk modeling and assessment tools. It also aims to engage in a dialogue with the PICs on integrated financial solutions for the reduction of their financial vulnerability to natural disasters and to climate change. The initiative is part of the broader agenda on disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in the Pacific region. Additionally, the Pacific Disaster Risk Assessment Project provides 15 countries with disaster risk assessment tools to help them better understand, model, and assess their exposure to natural disasters.

PacificMap 2019-08-29

map maps spatial

The PacificMap is a platform developed by CSIRO Data61 and the Pacific Data Hub (PDH) in collaboration with the Pacific Community Secretariat (SPC), as part of the Asia - Pacific for Development Initiative (D4D). The PacificMap is a platform for map-based access to spatial data from 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories. It will lower the barrier and enhance access to timely, relevant and useful data for government and non-government organisations, businesses and communities throughout the Pacific.

The PacificMap...
* provides easy access to authoritative and other spatial data to government, business and the public
* facilitates the opening of data by federal, state and local government bodies
* provides an open framework of geospatial data services that supports commercial and community innovation
* allows to create and share interactgive stories directly from your map

To see what data is available on the Pacific Map, refer to the Data Catalogue in the Pacific Map itself. Click the Add data button and expand a category to browse.

UN Biodiversity Lab 2019-08-29

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Coastal and Marine biodiversity carbon climate ecosystem services human impact land cover map maps marine natural hazards protected areas restoration socio-economic spatial

The UN Biodiversity Lab is an online platform that allows policymakers and other partners to access global data layers, upload and manipulate their own datasets, and query multiple datasets to provide key information on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and nature-based Sustainable Development Goals.

The core mission of the UN Biodiversity Lab is three-fold: to build spatial literacy to enable better decisions, to use spatial data as a vehicle for improved transparency and accountability, and to apply insights from spatial data across sectors to deliver on the Convention on Biological Diversity and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Framework for Pacific Regionalism 2019-08-27

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters framework governance inclusive pacific regionalism regionalism

Forum Leaders embrace Pacific regionalism as:

The expression of a common sense of identity and purpose, leading progressively to the sharing of institutions, resources, and markets, with the purpose of complementing national efforts, overcoming common constraints, and enhancing sustainable and inclusive development within Pacific countries and territories and for the Pacific region as a whole

Principal objectives are;

• Sustainable development that combines economic social, and cultural development in ways that improve livelihoods and well-being and use the environment sustainably;
• Economic growth that is inclusive and equitable;
• Strengthened governance, legal, financial, and administrative systems; and
• Security that ensures stable and safe human, environmental and political for all

Inform Project Regional Meeting 2019 2019-08-05

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters capacity building inform project regional meeting

The objective of this regional meeting is to build the capacity of the 14 project target countries, with an aim to build an open data community amongst the users of the national data portals and inform outputs. This is intended to improve south-south collaboration, enhance the opportunity for sustainability and increase the feeling of ownership and belonging amongst the project countries.

This will be delivered by real world application of Inform developed processes and tools, focused on a common area to all countries; protected areas.

The 2019 annual Steering Committee meeting will also be convened.

Venue : Sheraton Aggie Greys Hotel & Bungalows, Apia - Samoa
Dates : 19th - 22nd August 2019

Solid Waste Management in the Pacific Series (2014) collection of reports 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This series outlines the status of solid waste management in ADB's Pacific member economies and recommends key points for action to address challenges related to solid waste management.

Reports available:

  1. Cook Islands Country Snapshot
  2. Fiji Country Snapshot
  3. Kiribati Country Snapshot
  4. RMI Country Snapshot
  5. FSM Country Snapshot
  6. Nauru Country Snapshot
  7. Palau Country Snapshot
  8. PNG Country Snapshot
  9. Samoa Country Snapshot
  10. SI Country Snapshot
  11. Timor -Leste Country Snapshot
  12. Tonga Country Snapshot
  13. Tuvalu Country Snapshot
  14. Vanuatu Country Snapshot
  15. Appropriate Technologies
  16. Financial Arrangements
  17. Institutional arrangements

Referenced reports were accessed from the ADB site  - https://www.adb.org/publications/series/solid-waste-management-pacific 

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Pacific Regional Education Framework (PacREF) 2018 - 2030: Moving Towards Education 2030 2019-07-10

education human rights pacific regionalism students sustainable development

Forum Leaders’ Pacific Vision promotes peace, harmony, security, social inclusion, and prosperity where all Pacific people can lead-free and healthy lives. The Framework for Pacific Regionalism represents the Forum Leaders ongoing political commitment to work together as one region in order to achieve this vision. In 2017, Forum Leaders endorsed The Blue Pacific Narrative as the core driver of collective action for advancing the Leaders’ Pacific Vision. This narrative reaffirms our shared ownership of the Pacific Ocean and the connection of all Pacific peoples with their natural resources, environment, and livelihoods, and aims to harness their shared ocean identity, geography and resources to drive positive socio-cultural, political and economic development. The adoption of the Pacific Regional Education Framework (PacREF) 2018 – 2030 by Forum Education Ministers in 2018, outlined a transformative and sustainable regional education agenda aligned with global agendas such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) particularly SDG4, the education goal and Education 2030: Incheon Declaration on Education for All Framework for Action. The PacREF’s four key policy areas of Quality and Relevance, Learning Pathways, Students Outcomes and Wellbeing and Teacher Professionalism will support the Forum Leaders’ Pacific Vision over the next twelve years.

Pacific Lighthouses: Renewable Energy Roadmapping for Islands - IRENA 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

IRENAs multi-faceted work in the region is reflected in Pacific Lighthouses: Renewable Energy Roadmapping for Islands. The main report, intended to provide a framework for further action, is supported by 15 reports on specific islands and a document detailing hybrid
power systems for the Pacific. Together, these reports identify key concepts, challenges and best practices for the accelerated uptake of renewable energy in the
region. The aim is to provide island governments and, indeed, all stakeholders, with baseline information to assist in the development of local renewable energy deployment roadmaps, as well as strengthening the implementation of regional initiatives. IRENA’s Pacific Lighthousesset of reports aims to provide a better understanding of current energy conditions in the Pacific Islands region and to facilitate the continued assessment of challenges and opportunities for the deployment of RE in island environments. The set also constitutes an IRENA input for the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States to be held in Samoa, 1-4 September 2014.

Energy and Poverty in the Pacific Island Countries: Challenges and the Way Forward 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by the UNDP. The report highlights that access to affordable and sustainable sources of energy has strong linkages with the reduction of poverty/hardship, i.e. if poverty/hardship reduction is an objective, then the provision of energy is an essential prerequisite. In the PICs, where poverty/hardship is often viewed as the lack of access to basic services, opportunities and adequate resources, the case for energy provisioning and access is particularly strong. Provision of essential social services such as health and primary education require energy services. In addition, energy services have positive impacts on gender, the environment and provide an improved quality of life. Furthermore, in many cases the provision of modern energy sources increases the opportunities for income generation.

Keywords: UNDP, Energy and poverty, energy services, gender

Papua New Guinea Climate Change (Management) Act 2015 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Act No.19 of 2015. Certified on 20 November 2015.

This act was prepared by Papua New Guinea Government. The act was prepared to provide for the regulatory framework to -

a. promote and manage climate compatible development through climate change mitigation and adaptation activities; and

b. implement any relevant obligations of the state under applicable rules of international law and international agreements related to climate change; and

c. establish Papua New Guinea's Designated National Authority or an equivalent entity for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol and any such other or subsequent arrangements or agreements made under the Kyoto protocol.

Enhanced production of oceanic dimethylsulfide resulting from CO2-induced grazing activity in a high CO2 world 2019-06-12

abundance biogeochemistry biological-response brcommunity field mesocosms multiple-factors north-pacific oaiccnoanswer ocean-acidification otherprocess temperature

Oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) released to the atmosphere affects the Earth's radiation budget through the production and growth of cloud condensation nuclei over the oceans. However, it is not yet known whether this negative climate feedback mechanism will intensify or weaken in oceans characterized by high CO(2) levels and warm temperatures. To investigate the effects of two emerging environmental threats (ocean acidification and warming) on marine DMS production, we performed a perturbation experiment in a coastal environment. Two sets of CO(2) and temperature conditions (a pCO(2) of approximately 900 ppmv at ambient temperature conditions, and a pCO(2) of approximately 900 ppmv at a temperature approximately 3 degrees C warmer than ambient) significantly stimulated the grazing rate and the growth rate of heterotrophic dinoflagellates (ubiquitous marine microzooplankton). The increased grazing rate resulted in considerable DMS production. Our results indicate that increased grazing-induced DMS production may occur in high CO(2) oceans in the future.

Performance Benchmarking for Pacific Power Utilities report, June 2015:Baseline year of Study - 2012 Fiscal Year 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report is a publication of the Pacific Power Association (PPA). The report is based upon the 2012 fiscal reporting year relevant to each utility. Presents the results of the 3rd successive annual assessment of Pacific electricity utility performance since the initiative resumed in 2011. Report prepared by PPA with technical support from the Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility (PRIF).

Report was sourced from the PPA website - http://www.ppa.org.fj/publication-report/ 

 Keywords - Utilities benchmarking report, PPA benchmarking report, 2012 PPA benchmarking report

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Survey of consumer awareness and use of energy rating labels in PICs: REGIONAL REPORT 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

SPC commissioned Tebbutt Research to undertake the survey of consumer awareness and use of energy rating labels in Pacific Island Countries (PICs). The survey was completed in 10 PICs during December 2016, January 2017 and February 2017:

  • Fiji,
  • Cook Islands,
  • Kiribati,
  • Niue,
  • Papua New Guinea,
  • Samoa,
  • Solomon Islands,
  • Tonga,
  • Tuvalu, and
  • Vanuatu.

This report is one of the deliverables for the project. It summarises the key findings for the region, showing results comparing each of the ten countries.

Key Words: Tebbutt Research, Energy rating labels, survey,  PALS project, SPC, Australian government

Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) - PEEP2 Final Report on Green Hotels Rating Schemes 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This document addresses  one of the activities under Output 2  of the PEEP2 Project  –  Development of Energy Efficiency Policies and Procedures, which aims to establish energy efficiency best practices for the  hospitality  sector,  including  a  recommendation  to  adopt  a  green  hotels  rating  scheme  in  the PDMCs. To this end, the PEEP2 team has undertaken  a study of green hotels ratings schemes, in order to  recommend  one  such  rating  scheme  for  adoption.  This  recommendation  is  accompanied  with  a proposed  framework  for  adoption  that  discusses  a  roadmap  for  implementation,  the  institutional structure, and possible avenues for funding mechanisms.

PEEP2 website: http://www.ee-pacific.net/

keywords: PEEP2, PEEP 2, IIEC, green hotel

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) - PEEP2 Assessment of Medium and Large Air - Conditioning Technologies in the Commercial and Public Buildings in the Pacific 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

. This report presents results of assessment of medium and large AC technologies used in commercial and public buildings in the Pacific countries. The air-conditioning technologies assessed are: Variable Refrigerant Volume/Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRV/VRF) systems, Reciprocating Chillers, Screw Chillers, Scroll Chillers and Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) units with and without Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). Other smaller systems were assessed and their results have been presented in other complementing reports. Evaluated technologies were assessed based on Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) using a generic spreadsheet model.

The evaluation of the proposed energy efficient technologies was undertaken for two scenarios, namely, (i) replacement of old technologies with new technologies, and (ii) purchase of new technologies for new installations.

Keywords: peep2, air conditioning, AC, energy efficient technology

Reports for the project to "Update the FAESP energy security indicators: 2009-2015" 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The 3rd phase of the “Technical assistance to update the energy security indicators for the framework for action on energy security in the Pacific“  began in October  2013 with the aim  to:

  • To strengthen SPC’s capacity, as lead regional energy agency to compile accurate, reliable and consistent energy security indicators for the period 2010 to  2012 for all 14 FICs in a timely manner
  • To support effective energy sector management and decision making in the PICs, by enabling  access by national energy offices, other national stakeholders and CROPs, other regional agencies and development partners to accurate, reliable and consistent regional energy security data for the past three years, including analysis of trends over time, comparison with baseline and analysis of key indicators
  • To assess the effectiveness and impacts of the FAESP IPESP, in terms of works completed and as measured with the energy security indicators.

 During the course of the project implemenatation, SPC was further provided with the responsibility to be the interim host of the Pacific Regional Data Repository for Sustainable Energy for ALL (PRDR SE4ALL) in April 2014 during the Regional Transport and Energy Ministerial Meeting. This led SPC to further request EUEI PDF in June 2014 to support progress the implementatiion of the PRDR SE4ALL initiative. This was gracefully approved to acomodate the request with the project implementatiion timeline extended to March 2015. As a result of the added request an ammended contract was signed in August 2014 which further captures an additional aim as follows:

  • To support SPC progress the implementation of the PRDR SE4ALL initiative looking at the development of the PRDR Portal and strengthening the buy-in to the PRDR SE4ALL initiative in selected PICs.      

However the project was not completed by March 2015 and was on stand still for 10 months, which was than progressed from February to October 2016.

The European Union Energy initiative partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF) has been kind enough to co-fund much of the work to date including providing USD 100,000 in funds to support SPC technical assitance efforts to the the PICs. 

How to read the energy label - Air Conditioners Brochure 2018 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The following brochure was developed as part of the Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards Programme in March 2018.

Energy labelling and MEPS for appliances are used in over 80 countries around the world to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emission. Pacific Island countries and territories risked being left behind to become a dumping ground for inefficient appliances, so in 2012 the SPC started a project to help Pacific Island countries set up their own energy labeling and MEPS programmes.

The Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards (PALS) Programme is part of SPC’s approach to increasing sustainable economic development through improved energy efficiency.
Pacific Island countries such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu are part of the PALS Programme. These countries are implementing energy labelling and MEPS for refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners and lighting; though at different stages. A lot of work and effort is put into drafting appropriate legislation, regulations, seeking appropriate endorsements and collaboration between sectors and agencies.

Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) - PEEP2 Summary Report on Assessment of Energy Efficient Technologies for the Pacific 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Report prepared for Asian Development Bank, by International Institute for Energy Conservation - Asia. 5 countries are part of this PEEP2 programme: Cook Islands, PNG, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu. In these Pacific Developing Member Countries (PDMCs) , a number of new/innovative end-use technologies are likely to be applicable for improving energy efficiency in a cost-effective manner as well as reducing energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose is to identify and assess a range of applicable energy efficient low carbon technologies for the five PDMCs.

In this regard, energy efficient technology options for the following types of technologies were evaluated:

a)    Small Air Conditioning (AC) Technologies - wind, split, split plus inverter & solar air conditioning systems

b)    Medium and Large Air Conditioning Technologies - VRV/VRF, reciprocating, screw, scroll chilers, HVAC systems with VFD

c)    Water Heating Technologies - heat water pump heaters, solar , gas water heaters

d)    Lighting Technologies

The project team identified the various energy efficient technologies that are applicable in the PDMCs and this summary report presents findings of the assessment of these technologies. The evaluated technologies were assessed based on Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) using a generic spreadsheet model. The evaluation of the proposed energy efficient technologies was undertaken for two scenarios, namely, (i) replacement of old technologies by new technologies, and (ii) purchase of new technologies for new installations.

 

Keywords: PEEP2

Pacific Region Electricity Bills, Comparison Report 2013 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Pacific Region Electricity Bills - Comparison Report 2013 for the electricity sector. Report published by the Vanuatu Utility Regulatory Authority (URA). URA conducted an analysis of bills, electricity tariff for electricity customers across the Pacific. This reports provides the summary of the findings. 

The aim of this paper is to provide a comparison of electricity costs paid by customers in Vanuatu with
different countries across the Pacific region. This is based on publicly available information on electricity rates
for different utilities, and includes all applicable taxes and fees.

Source: http://www.ura.gov.vu/

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Microsensor studies on from a natural CO seep: implications of morphology on acclimation to low pH 2019-06-12

algae biological-response field ocean-acidification photosynthesis physiology south-pacific vents

Low seawater pH can be harmful to many calcifying marine organisms, but the calcifying macroalgae Padina spp. flourish at natural submarine carbon dioxide seeps where seawater pH is low. We show that the microenvironment created by the rolled thallus margin of Padina australis facilitates supersaturation of CaCO3 and calcification via photosynthesis-induced elevated pH. Using microsensors to investigate oxygen and pH dynamics in the microenvironment of P. australis at a shallow CO2 seep, we found that, under saturating light, the pH inside the microenvironment (pHME) was higher than the external seawater (pHSW) at all pHSW levels investigated, and the difference (i.e., pHME - pHSW) increased with decreasing pHSW (0.9 units at pHSW 7.0). Gross photosynthesis (Pg) inside the microenvironment increased with decreasing pHSW, but algae from the control site reached a threshold at pH 6.5. Seep algae showed no pH threshold with respect to Pg within the pHSW range investigated. The external carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, acetazolamide, strongly inhibited Pg of P. australis at pHSW 8.2, but the effect was diminished under low pHSW (6.4-7.5), suggesting a greater dependence on membrane-bound CA for the dehydration of HCO3- ions during dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake at the higher pHSW. In comparison, a calcifying green alga, Halimeda cuneata f. digitata, was not inhibited by AZ, suggesting efficient bicarbonate transport. The ability of P. australis to elevate pHME at the site of calcification and its strong dependence on carbonic anhydrase may explain why it can thrive at low pHSW.

Public-Private Partnership Monitor 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This publication provides information on the PPP business environment in nine ADB developing member countries to help public sector policy makers improve private sector participation in infrastructure projects.

The first edition of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Monitor tracks the development of the PPP business environment as well as the challenges of doing PPPs in nine of the ADB’s developing member countries (DMCs): Bangladesh, the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. It is divided into four main categories: Regulatory Framework, Institutional Capacity for Implementation, PPP Market Maturity, and Financial Facilities. The PPP Monitor aims to increase the level and quality of private sector participation in infrastructure in the ADB's DMCs by serving as an active platform for dialogue between the public and private sectors.

Performance Benchmarking for Pacific Power Utilities report, December 2011: Baseline year of study - 2010 Fiscal Year 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Perfomance benchmarking study for Pacific Island power utilities - 20 utilities. The last study of such kind was undertaken a decade ago. The current study adopts same basic indicators in the ealier effort, but additional indicators added to include grid-connected renewable systems, utility energy efficiencies, electricity suppply to grids from independent suppliers and others. Study coordinated by Pacific Power Association. 

Report was sourced from the PPA website - http://www.ppa.org.fj/publication-report/ 

 Keywords - Utilities benchmarking report, PPA benchmarking report, 2010 PPA benchmarking report

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Performance Benchmarking for Pacific Power Utilities report, March 2013: Baseline year of Study - 2011 Fiscal Year 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Annual benchmarking is a mechanism for better information collection and decision making within power utilities, and assisting the improvement of operational efficiency, service delivery and overall performance.

During 2012, 22 Pacific Island power utilities participated in the second of a programme of annual performance benchmarking studies. This year’s benchmarking employed the same indicators established by the 2011 study – itself the first benchmarking assessment to be carried out in more than a decade.

Comparisons of the most recent results (for 2011 utility operations) with those of the previous study (for 2010 utility operations) were made, including those for the set of expanded indicators agreed as the baseline. The analysis was further extended to include a self-assessment of data reliability and more information on utility cost structure. Where possible, comparisons with international benchmarking studies of small and island utilities were updated.

The scope of the work in 2012 specifically addressed previous recommendations directed at improving the quality of information and the usefulness of benchmarking to participants. These recommendations were recognised in the design of the questionnaire and indicator set, the conduct of a benchmarking workshop for attendants of the Pacific Power Association (PPA) Conference Engineers Workshop in Vanuatu in July 2012, an updated benchmarking manual, and provision of funding for utility visits to assist in data validation and the development of performance improvement plans.

Annual benchmarking efforts continue to be coordinated by the PPA with financial assistance from development partners through the Sydney-based Pacific Infrastructure Advisory Center (PIAC) under an agreement between the PPA, PIAC and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), which coordinates Pacific regional energy matters. All PPA members were invited to participate, with one additional confirmed participant increasing the benchmark group to 22 utilities.

The report covers for the reference year of 2011.

Report was sourced from the PPA website - http://www.ppa.org.fj/publication-report/ 

 Keywords - Utilities benchmarking report, PPA benchmarking report, 2011 PPA benchmarking report

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Papua New Guinea country report : profiles and results from survey work at Andra, Tsoilaunung, Sideia, and Panapompom (June to November 2006) 2019-03-31

Coastal and Marine coral reef fisheries coral-reef-fisheries fisheries marine invertebrate populations marine resources marine-invertebrate-populations marine-resources pccos reef fisheries reef-fisheries text

Friedman K., Kronen M., Pinca S., Magron F., Boblin P., Pakoa K., Awira R., Chapman L. 2009. Papua New Guinea country report : profiles and results from survey work at Andra, Tsoilaunung, Sideia, and Panapompom (June to November 2006). Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C/CoFish). Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). 471 p.

Carbon turnover rates in the One Tree Island reef: a 40-year perspective 2019-06-12

biological-response brcommunity calcification chemistry field ocean-acidification photosynthesis respiration south-pacific

During November–December 2009 community rates of gross photosynthesis (Pg), respiration (R) and net calcification (Gnet) were estimated from low-tide slack water measurements of dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity at the historical station DK13 One Tree Island reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Compared to measurements made during the 1960s–1970s at DK13 in the same season, Pg increased from 833 to 914 mmol O2˙m−2˙d−1 and Pg:R increased from 1.14 to 1.30, indicating that the reef has become more autotrophic. In contrast, Gnet decreased from 133 mmol C˙m−2˙d−1 to 74 ± 24 mmol C˙m−2˙d−1. This decrease stems primarily from the threefold increase in nighttime CaCO3 dissolution from −2.5 mmol˙m−2˙h−1 to −7.5 mmol˙m−2˙h−1. Comparison of the benthic community survey results from DK13 and its vicinity conducted during this study and in studies from the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s suggest that there have been no significant changes in the live coral coverage during the past 40 years. The reduced Gnet most likely reflects the almost threefold increase in dissolution rates, possibly resulting from increased bioerosion due to changes in the biota (e.g., sea cucumbers, boring organisms) and/or from greater chemical dissolution produced by changing abiotic conditions over the past 40 years associated with climate change, such as increased temperatures and ocean acidification. However, at this stage of research on One Tree Island the effects of these changes are not entirely understood.

2018 Quarter 1: Pacific Fuel Price Monitor (PFPM) 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report captures the Pacific Fuel Price Monitor for the first quarter (Jan -March 2018). Reviews are based on analysis of Means of Platts Singapore(MOPS), Benchmark Saudi Aramco LPG prices(sourced from 3MCO) and Pacific Fuel Prices on an quarterly average (source from Pacific Island countries).

The report captures:

  • regional retail fuel prices
  • unleaded motor gasoline prices (mogas)
  • automotive diesel oil (ADO) prices
  • kerosene prices
  • liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
  • Exchange Rates

Documents are prepared by the Pacific Community - Georesources and Energy Programme.

Keywords: Petroleum, fossil fuel, price, monitor, fuel price monitor, PFPM

Organic carbon flux in Shiraho coral reef (Ishigaki Island, Japan) 2019-06-12

101594pangaea717727 biogeochemistry chemistry field north-pacific oaiccdb ocean-acidification

Organic carbon flux and community production rates were estimated on Shiraho coral reef (Ishigaki Island, Japan) from 19 to 26 September 1998. The daily net community production (Pn) and respiration rate (R) during the study period were 3 to 79 and 596 mmolC m-2 d-1, respectively. This resulted in a daily gross community production (Pg) of 599 to 675 mmolC m-2 d-1. The variation of Pn associated with the uncertainty of the curve fitting parameters of light response curves for photosynthesis was estimated using an error propagation formula. The averaged Pn ± SE was 36 ± 12 mmolC m-2 d-1 (n = 23), indicating that the Pn was significantly positive (t-test, p \textless 0.05). The apparent fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) on the reef were estimated as 30 to 36 and 5 to 7 mmolC m-2 d-1, respectively; The sum of which was comparable with the Pn during the study period. The sediment trap study conducted at 1 km off the reef and 40 m depth showed that the vertical flux of POC was 1.0 mmolC m-2 d-1. The results indicated that 6 to 7 % of the Pg was exported to offshore and about 14 to 20% of the POC exported from the reef flat and 0.2% of the Pg reached 1 km off and 40 m depth.

LPG and Natural Gas as Alternative Energy Sources for the Pacific 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The study assesses the potential and economic feasibility of LPG, LNG or CNG to meet medium term energy needs in PICTs. It considers the end-use applications of power generation, process heating, maritime transport, land transport, cooking and water heating. The existing fuels considered for substitution include heavy fuel oil (HFO), diesel, gasoline, kerosene and biomass.

International aviation fuel is excluded because gas does not offer a technologically viable alternative to aviation fuel at this stage.

The research phase of the study consisted of desk research; in-country research in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), New Caledonia, Tonga and Vanuatu; and consultations with government officials and industry representatives. Twenty countries and territories were included1. The consultations with government and industry representatives were crucial because they indicated the most likely scenarios or entry points, and the implications of different decisions that have been (or might be) made by individual countries. Data has been aggregated from the best available sources at the time of writing, though there are some data gaps.

The report presents scenarios and possible situations and reflects the collective understanding at the time the information was being collated. The hypothetical scenarios include one for LPG in air conditioning and two for fuel substitution with LNG or CNG.

Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) - Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific were designed in accordance with the specific needs and requirements of the PDMCs, which have limited resources due to their geographical placement. The utilities, public and private sectors have limited experience in developing and implementing energy efficiency projects capable of making considerable impact in the region.

 These guidelines were designed taking the above factors into consideration, and are intended to significantly  reduce costs, save energy, and lower GHG emissions. These guidelines employ a simple and effective approach for achieving such reductions; they provide guidance on how utility and municipal staff can improve the energy efficiency and performance of  street and public lighting. They also provide methods for reducing the operation and maintenance costof public lighting in order to ensure on-going quality and functionality.

 These guidelines employ a simple and effective approach for achieving such reductions; they provide guidance on how utility and municipal staff can improve the energy efficiency and performance of street and public lighting. They also provide methods for reducing the operation and maintenance cost  of public lighting in order to ensure on-going quality and functionality. These guidelines provide a range of easy to follow techniques and methodologies on the different steps in design, installation and maintenance of energy efficient street lighting in the Pacific.

Country Report for Papua New Guinea - Technical Analysis of Appliance Markets to Support the Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards (PALS) Programme 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report is prepared by the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) for the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (REEEP) partnership. The objective of this study is to analyse the characteristics of major appliance and lighting products and markets in Papua New Guinea (PNG), in order to inform and support decision making on the most suitable Standards & Labelling (S&L) strategy for PNG. The electrical appliance information presented in this section is based on data provided by the PNG National Statistical Office and covers the most common electrical appliances in the country. This report provides analysis on the country of origin of electrical appliances based on import value and import unit data. Using number of units imported is a more accurate way of determining the market share of each country as the import value share is influenced by exchange rates and equipment costs, i.e. the average electrical equipment import value from Australia/New Zealand and Europe are typically higher than that of the People’s Republic of China (China).

Geothermal Power Potential of Selected Pacific Nations 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) exclusively for and under contract to Ministry of Research Science and Technology. This desktop study provides an overview of the geothermal potential of selected Pacific islands and territories. It has been based on an initial literature review of 20 Pacific countries and then a subsequent more detailed review of five Pacific countries, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Samoa, Tonga and the Northern Mariana Islands. The report provides information on the geology and known geothermal features in each of the selected nations or territory’s, combined with a summary of energy demand, and potential for geothermal development.

Quantification of the Power System Energy Losses in Southern Pacific Utilities - Consolidated Report 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

KEMA was contracted by the Pacific Power Association to conduct an energy efficiency study called "Quantification of the Power System Energy Losses in Southern Pacific Utilities" for 10 Southern Pacific Islands. 

This Consolidated Report gives an overview of the major findings of the study.
The ten (10) utility island systems studied were the following:

  1.  Electric Power Corporation (EPC), Samoa
  2. Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA), Fiji
  3. Niue Power Corporation (NPC), Niue
  4. Nauru Utilities Corporation (NUC), Nauru
  5. PNG Power LTD (PPL), Papua New Guinea – Port Moresby system
  6. Public Utilities Board (PUB), Kiribati – Tarawa Atoll
  7. Solomon Islands Electricity Authority (SIEA), Solomon Islands 
  8. Te Aponga Uira O Tumu -Te-Varovaro (TAU), Cook Islands
  9. Tuvalu Electricity Corporation (TEC), Tuvalu - Funafuti
  10. Tonga Power Limited (TPL), Tonga

Report was sourced from the PPA website at the following link: http://www.ppa.org.fj/publication-report/

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

EU PacTVET ANNUAL REPORT YEAR 2 - 2016 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Address from the Team Leader of the European Union Pacific Technical and Vocational Education and Training Project.

Year 2 started on a positive note with the signing of the Finance Agreement between USP and SPC and the full recruitment of all project staff in August, 2015.

In addition, under the Global Project Management component, a total of 6 internships were offered over the course of year 2. The internships comprised 3-month attachments with time shared between USP and SPC.

The Coordination Committee met 5 times over the reporting period and has proved to be a very positive mechanism to promote the communication, progress reporting and timely and efficient guidance to project issues.

The Communications strategy was refined since the last reporting period and continued to be successfully implemented in providing media coverage for project activities. There is now a project website as part of the wider Pacific Regional Data Repository (PRDR) Sustainable Energy For All (SE4All) database. Additionally, there is a project Facebook page which already has over 200 followers.

Major activities of the project within the reporting period were extensively covered through FB as well as on print media. Under Results Area 1, the training needs consultations for all 15 P-ACP countries was finalised in end-September.

The first three-way agreement between SPC, USP and the Republic of Timor Leste’s National Directorate for Climate Change was signed in September. Two consultancies were undertaken for the project within the reporting period to support the training needs assessment.

Two further events were attended/organised by the project team in efforts to discuss the skills and competencies to be included in the CCA/DRR qualifications. The project inception meeting was held on October 8-9, 2015 in Suva, Fiji. At this meeting, endorsement was obtained on country TNGA priorities and there was consensus for the development of regional qualifications in Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Energy.

As part of Results Area 2, the project engaged the Fiji Higher Education Commission (FHEC) from August 2015 to lead the development of the CCA and SE qualifications. The Industry Standards Advisory Committees (ISAC) for both SE and CCA were set up and included regional representation to deliberate on the content of the qualifications.

Regional participation was possible via an on-line system called “Basecamp”. The final meeting of the regional ISAC was held from 16-19th May, 2016 with three global firsts including provisional regional rather than national agreement on government sanctioned qualifications; development of formal qualifications at levels 1-4 (on the Pacific Qualifications Framework) which cover the subject areas of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, and the recognition and professionalization of a “Resilience Sector” via the creation of a Pacific Regional Federation of Resilience Professionals.

The PRFRP is the forum/network at regional/international level linking trainers and educators as well at the industry personnel for accreditation and quality assurance aspect of Resilience qualifications.

The effect of seawater CO2 concentration on growth of a natural phytoplankton assemblage in a controlled mesocosm experiment 2019-06-12

101594pangaea718850 abundance biological-response brcommunity community-composition field growth kim2006a mesocosms north-pacific oaiccdb ocean-acidification otherprocess

We examine the effects of seawater PCO2 concentration of 25, 41, and 76 kPa (250, 400, and 750 mu atm) on the growth rate of a natural assemblage of mixed phytoplankton obtained from a carefully controlled, 14-d mesocosm experiment. Throughout the experiment period, in all enclosures, two phytoplankton taxa (microflagellates and cryptomonads) and two diatom species (Skeletonema costatum and Nitzschia spp.) account for approximately 90% of the phytoplankton community. During the nutrient-replete period from day 9 to day 14 populations of Skeletonema costatum and Nitzschia spp. increased substantially; however, only Skeletonema costatum showed an increase in growth rate with increasing seawater pCO(2). Not all diatom species in Korean coastal waters are sensitive to seawater pCO(2) under nutrient-replete conditions.

Pacific Region Electricity Bills - Comparative Report 2014 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Pacific Region Electricity Bills - Comparison Report 2014 for the electricity sector. Report published by the Vanuatu Utility Regulatory Authority (URA). URA conducted an analysis of bills, electricity tariff for electricity customers across the Pacific. This reports provides the summary of the findings. 

The aim of this paper is to provide a comparison of electricity costs paid by customers in Vanuatu with 
different countries across the Pacific region. This is based on publicly available information on electricity rates 
for different utilities, and includes all applicable taxes and fees.

Source: http://www.ura.gov.vu/

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Endorsed Proposal for the PRDR SE4ALL 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This proposal has been prepared for the consideration of senior officials and Minsters at the SPC-convened Energy and Transport Ministers Meeting being held in Nadi from 31 March to 4 April 2014. It has been developed by ESCAP with the assistance of Dr. Herbert Wade, an independent consultant who undertook missions to Tuvalu (21-25 January 2014), Kiribati (26 January to 2 February 2014), and Vanuatu (4 - 7 February, 2014) 1 to help determine the feasibility of the PRDR through interviews with key stakeholders in those countries.

In September 2013 in conjunction with the UN General-Assembly, 11 Pacific leaders signed a declaration to establish a Pacific Regional Data Repository (PRDR) in support of the UN Secretary-General’s Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. It is proposed that the PRDR be established with the mandate to collect energy related data directly from primary sources as frequently as the data becomes available.

The PRDR would focus only on the collection and dissemination of primary data which would be collected directly from data sources to the extent possible (following consultations with each participating country). In this way the PRDR would complement the existing work of SPC and National Statistical Systems and would provide a service to Pacific island countries, development partners and energy suppliers.

A two-step approach to implementation of the PRDR is proposed. A trial period of five years would allow potential value of the PRDR to be demonstrated. Should the PRDR prove to be successful (based on external evaluation) within this 5 year timeframe, longer term institutional arrangements could be established. Two main options on the hosting of the PRDR in its initial phase of implementation have emerged through consultations: (a) Hosting within an existing regional organisation; or (b) Establishing a new, dedicated and ‘lean’ entity in a Pacific island country. There are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches as outlined in the technical proposal. Ultimately the hosting of the Repository may be determined by the best approach to ensure sustainability, including the availability of funding.

ADB Operations in the Pacific 2019-05-09

Culture and Heritage Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment adb adb administration and governance adb operations in the pacific climate change development economic development education energy geoscience health official records social statutory reports sustainable development

This publication provides a snapshot of the Asian Development Bank’s operations in the Pacific over the past 5 decades.

Operations of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in the Pacific date back to 1969 and have since grown rapidly in line with interconnected needs. Development partnerships, projects, and other initiatives aim to strengthen infrastructure and services, build human and institutional capacity, and increase the resilience of communities across the region. This publication commemorates over 50 years of partnership in the region as Fiji becomes the first Pacific developing member country to host the 2019 ADB Annual Meeting. Highlights include the evolution of core operational areas, recent successes, and emerging areas for collaboration and support.

Pacific Islands Energy Policy and Plan (2002) 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This document represents a regional consensus, affirmed at the 2002 Regional Energy Meeting in Cook Islands via the Rarotonga Declaration.

The Pacific Islands Energy Policy and Plan has been coordinated by the Committee of Regional Organisations of the Pacific (CROP) - Energy Working Group, comprising Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS), Pacific Power Association (PPA), Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP) University of the South Pacific (USP) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Vision - Available, reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for sustainable development for all Pacific islanders.

Introduction - Energy has a vital role in achieving sustainable development in the Pacific region. It is a fundamental input to most economic and social activity and a prerequisite for development in other sectors such as education, health, and communications. Sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the directions of investment, the orientation of technological change, and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. It is recognised that women are important stakeholders in the energy sector and their participation is vital to achieve sustainable development. Responding to energy issues within the context of sustainable development involves many complex and interdependent factors addressed by this policy statement.

Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Commercial & Public Buildings in the Pacific: Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC). The document has been produced with the financial assistance of the Asian Development Bank. The objective of the second phase is to implement energy efficiency measures in the 5 Pacific developing member countries (PDMCs) in order to contribute to achieving the overall goal of reducing the energy consumption in the residential, commercial, and public sector, and to establish the policy and implementation frameworks to move towards the goals of reducing fossil fuel imports, achieving total energy savings, and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 

The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Commercial and Public Buildings in the Pacic were developed under PEEP2 to provide an overview of best practices, methods and techniques for commercial and public buildings to achieve considerable energy savings, at the same time enhancing the working environment.

This Energy Efciency Guidelines for Commercial and Public Buildings in the Pacic is a practical handbook with simple recommendations for new and existing commercial and public buildings to achieve signicant cost savings from reduced energy consumption and GHG emissions. The guideline addresses how building owners, building management and operation & maintenance (O&M) staff can improve energy performance and reduce operating costs of the building, highlighting the importance and functionality of energy managements systems.

keywords: IIEC, PEEP2, energy efficiency, commercial, public buildings

Investments in IDA Countries: Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) 2013 - 2017 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This note analyzes trends in investment commitments in infrastructure projects with private sector participation (hereafter referred to as PPI investments) in countries eligible for support from the International Development Association (hereafter—called IDA countries2) during the five-year period from 2013 to 2017. The note analyzes investment commitments at the time of financial closure in energy, transport, water, and information and communication technologies (ICT) backbone projects serving the public in IDA countries. For the first time, reported investment also includes ICT backbone infrastructure projects such as fiber optic cables, mobile towers, and other hard assets, with active government participation.

For the purpose of this review, we focus on 59 countries (see annex I) that are eligible for IDA assistance and exclude blend4 countries. These 59 countries account for 3.5 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 17 percent of the population of emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs).

Effects of increased CO2 and temperature on the growth of four diatom species (Chaetoceros debilis, Chaetoceros didymus, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii) in laboratory experiments 2019-06-12

biological-response growth laboratory multiple-factors north-pacific oaiccincomplete ocean-acidification physiology phytoplankton temperature

We examined the combined impacts of future increases of CO2 and temperature on the growth of four marine diatoms (Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros debilis, Chaetoceros didymus, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii). The four strains were incubated under four different conditions: present (: 400ppm, temperature: ), acidification (: 1000ppm, temperature: ), global warming (: 400ppm, temperature: ), and greenhouse (: 1000ppm, temperature: ) conditions. Under the condition of higher temperatures, growth of S. costatum was suppressed, while C. debilis showed enhanced growth. Both C. didymus and T. nodenskioldii showed similar growth rates under current and elevated temperature. None of the four species appeared affected in their cell growth by elevated CO2 concentrations. Chetoceros spp. showed increase of pH per unit fluorescence under elevated concentrations, but no difference in pH from that under current conditions was observed for either S. costatum or T. nodenskioeldii, implying that Chetoceros spp. can take up more per cell than the other two diatoms. Our results of cell growth and pH change per unit fluorescence suggest that both C. debilis and C. didymus are better adapted to future oceanic conditions of rising water temperature and CO2 than are S. costatum and T. nodenskioeldii.

Regional Status Report on Efficient Lighting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The Regional Status Report on Efficient Lighting in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories was prepared by George Wilkenfeld and Associates, Energy Policy and Planning consultants, Australia for the Pacific Efficient Lighting Strategy (PELS) Project managed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC).The report covers most of the SPC PICTs and benefitted from surveys and data collected by the Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific – Phase 2 (PEEP 2) Project and the Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards
(PALS) Program.

This report reviews the status of lighting energy use and programs to increase the energy-efficiency of lighting services in the Pacific Region. It was commissioned by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) as part of a joint project with the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) en.lighten initiative. The aim of the report is to examine the: 

✴ efficient lighting policies and regulations in place in the region; and
✴ efficient lighting programs and projects under way.
This will be followed by the development of a regional Pacific efficient lighting strategy (PELS) which will detail the priority policies and frameworks to be implemented, identify opportunities for regional or bilateral cooperation and indicate a sustainable financing plan including the potential for public-private partnerships.

Coccolithophore responses to environmental variability in the South China Sea: species composition and calcite content 2019-06-12

abundance biological-response brcommunity chemistry community-composition field morphology north-pacific ocean-acidification otherprocess phytoplankton

Coccolithophore contributions to the global marine carbon cycle are regulated by the calcite content of their scales (coccoliths) and the relative cellular levels of photosynthesis and calcification rates. All three of these factors vary between coccolithophore species and with response to the growth environment. Here, water samples were collected in the northern basin of the South China Sea (SCS) during summer 2014 in order to examine how environmental variability influenced species composition and cellular levels of calcite content. Average coccolithophore abundance and their calcite concentration in the water column were 11.82 cells mL−1 and 1508.3 pg C mL−1, respectively, during the cruise. Water samples can be divided into three floral groups according to their distinct coccolithophore communities. The vertical structure of the coccolithophore community in the water column was controlled by the trophic conditions, which were regulated by mesoscale eddies across the SCS basin. The evaluation of coccolithophore-based calcite in the surface ocean also showed that three key species in the SCS (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda) and other larger, numerically rare species made almost equal contributions to total coccolith-based calcite in the water column. For Emiliania huxleyi biometry measurements, coccolith size positively correlated with nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), and it is suggested that coccolith length is influenced by light and nutrients through the regulation of growth rates. Larger-sized coccoliths were also linked statistically to low pH and calcite saturation states; however, it is not a simple cause and effect relationship, as carbonate chemistry was strongly co-correlated with the other key environmental factors (nutrients, light).

Appliance Energy Labels and Standards Brochure 2018 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The following brochure was developed as part of the Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards Programme in March 2018.

Energy labelling and MEPS for appliances are used in over 80 countries around the world to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emission. Pacific Island countries and territories risked being left behind to become a dumping ground for inefficient appliances, so in 2012 the SPC started a project to help Pacific Island countries set up their own energy labeling and MEPS programmes.

The Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards (PALS) Programme is part of SPC’s approach to increasing sustainable economic development through improved energy efficiency.
Pacific Island countries such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu are part of the PALS Programme. These countries are implementing energy labelling and MEPS for refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners and lighting; though at different stages. A lot of work and effort is put into drafting appropriate legislation, regulations, seeking appropriate endorsements and collaboration between sectors and agencies.

Primary production, calcification, and air-sea CO2 fluxes of a macroalgal-dominated coral reef community (Moorea, French Polynesia) 2019-06-12

algae biogeochemistry biological-response brcommunity calcification corals dissolution field ocean-acidification primary-production respiration south-pacific

Community metabolism and air-sea carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were investigated in July 1992 on a fringing reef at Moorea (French Polynesia). The benthic community was dominated by macroalgae (85% substratum cover) and comprised of Phaeophyceae Padina tenuis (Bory), Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh, and Hydroclathrus clathratus Bory (Howe); Chlorophyta Halimeda incrassata f. ovata J. Agardh (Howe); and Ventricaria ventricosa J. Agardh (Olsen et West), as well as several Rhodophyta (Actinotrichia fragilis Forskál (Børgesen) and several species of encrusting coralline algae). Algal biomass was 171 g dry weight˙ m−2. Community gross production (Pg), respiration (R), and net calcification (G) were measured in an open-top enclosure. Pg and R were respectively 248 and 240 mmol Co2˙m−2˙d−1, and there was a slight net dissolution of CaCO3 (0.8 mmol ˙ m−2˙d−1). This site was a sink for atmospheric CO2 (10 ± 4 mmol CO2˙m−2˙d−1), and the analysis of data from the literature suggests that this is a general feature of algal-dominated reefs. Measurement of air-sea CO2 fluxes in open water close to the enclosure demonstrated that changes in small-scale hydrodynamics can lead to misleading conclusions. Net CO2 evasion to the atmosphere was measured on the fringing reef due to changes in the current pattern that drove water from the barrier reef (a C02 source) to the study site.

Coccolithophore calcification is independent of carbonate chemistry in the tropical ocean: Calcification and carbonate chemistry 2019-06-12

biological-response calcification field indian north-atlantic north-pacific ocean-acidification phytoplankton primary-production south-atlantic south-pacific

Short-term experiments indicate that seawater acidification can cause a decrease in the rate of calcification by coccolithophores, but the relationship between carbonate chemistry and coccolithophore calcification rate in natural assemblages is still unclear. During the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, we measured primary production, calcification, coccolithophore abundance, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) concentration, and the parameters of the carbonate system, along basin-scale transects in the tropical Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Euphotic layer-integrated calcification and mean cell-specific calcification in the euphotic layer ranged between 2–10 mgC m−2 d−1 and 5–20 pgC cell−1 d−1, respectively. We found a significant relationship between primary production and calcification, such that the calcification to primary production (CP/PP) ratio was relatively invariant among ocean basins, with an overall mean value of 0.05 ± 0.04. Extrapolating this value to the entire ocean would result in a global pelagic calcification rate of 2.4 PtC yr−1. The mean PIC concentration in surface waters was 1.8 ± 1.6 mgC m−3 and its turnover time averaged 20 d. We combined our data of calcification, primary production, and carbonate chemistry from Malaspina 2010 with those obtained during two previous cruises in the northern Arabian Sea. Both the CP/PP ratio and cell-specific calcification were largely constant across a wide range of calcite saturation state (1.5–6.5), [ inline image]/[H+] (0.08–0.24; mol: $μ$mol), and pH (7.6–8.1), which indicates that calcification by natural coccolithophore assemblages was independent of carbonate chemistry. Our results suggest that coccolithophore calcification, at least in tropical regions, may not be decreasing in the currently acidifying ocean.

White Paper: Empowering Low Emission Development in the Pacific - March 2018 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The RALI Series is a collection of papers developed by the RALI project to share examples of low emission development in practice. The series features case studies, tools, and innovative new approaches in this space, highlighting user benefits and lessons learned. To learn more about the RALI project, visit https://www.climatelinks.org/projects/rali.

Article Introduction - Spread across 300,000 square miles of the Pacific Ocean, 14 island nations are tackling the challenge of transitioning to low-emission energy with a sense of urgency and resolve. Though small in scale, the experiences of these countries demonstrate technical approaches and regional collaboration useful to other nations around the world.

On a global scale, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from these islands and other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are negligible.1 Yet the very existence of many islands is threatened by climate-related impacts. Island nations are already feeling the impacts of sea level rise, ocean acidification, changes to the frequency and intensity of hurricanes, changing precipitation patterns, and coastal erosion. These nations understand the importance of reducing levels of GHGs through low emission development strategies (LEDS), and understand how LEDS link directly to their economic imperatives and sustainable development goals.

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

How to read the energy label - Refrigerators and Freezers Brochure 2018 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The following brochure was developed as part of the Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards Programme in March 2018.

Energy labelling and MEPS for appliances are used in over 80 countries around the world to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emission. Pacific Island countries and territories risked being left behind to become a dumping ground for inefficient appliances, so in 2012 the SPC started a project to help Pacific Island countries set up their own energy labeling and MEPS programmes.

The Pacific Appliance Labelling and Standards (PALS) Programme is part of SPC’s approach to increasing sustainable economic development through improved energy efficiency.
Pacific Island countries such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu are part of the PALS Programme. These countries are implementing energy labelling and MEPS for refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners and lighting; though at different stages. A lot of work and effort is put into drafting appropriate legislation, regulations, seeking appropriate endorsements and collaboration between sectors and agencies.

Modelling the mechanisms and drivers of the spatiotemporal variability of pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes in the Northern Humboldt Current System 2019-06-12

biogeochemistry modeling north-pacific ocean-acidification regionalmodeling

We use a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to investigate the drivers and mechanisms responsible for the spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) and associated air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS). Simulated pCO2 is in good agreement with available observations with an average absolute error of, approximately, 24 $μ$atm. The highly productive upwelling region, 300 km from the shore and between 5°S-17°S, is shown to be a strong CO2 source with an averaged flux of 5.60  ±  2.94 mol C m−2 yr−1, which represents an integrated carbon flux of 0.028  ±  0.015 Pg C yr−1 . Through a series of model experiments we show that the high pCO2 is primarily the result of coastal upwelling, which is incompletely compensated by biology. Specifically, the supply of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)-rich waters to the surface pushes pCO2 up to levels around 1100 $μ$atm. Even though biological production is high, it reduces pCO2 only by about 300 $μ$atm. We show that this relatively low degree of biological compensation, which implies an inefficient biological pump in the nearshore domain, results from a spatiotemporal decoupling between the counteracting effects of biological production and the transport and mixing of DIC. The contribution of the outgassing and the processes affecting CO2 solubility, associated with the seasonal cycle of heating and cooling, are minor. Across the whole domain, the balance of mechanisms is similar, but with smaller amplitudes. We demonstrate that seawater pCO2 is more sensitive to changes in DIC and sea surface temperature, while alkalinity plays a minor role.

Renewable Energy Opportunities for Island Tourism 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report analyzes in detail the potential contribution to the island tourism sector of four renewable energy technologies (RETs): 

  1. Solar water heating (SWH) systems use solar heat to warm up domestic water, usually replacing electric water heaters.
  2. Solar air conditioning (SAC) systems use solar heat to provide cooling and heating, usually replacing traditional electric chillers.
  3. Sea water air conditioning (SWAC) systems use cold water from the ocean depths to provide air conditioning in hotel rooms and facilities, usually replacing traditional electric chillers.
  4. Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems produce electricity from the sun, usually replacing diesel generated electricity, either purchased from the local power grid, or self-produced with private diesel generators

Electric Appliance Energy Labelling and Minimum Energy Performance Standards For Pacific Islands Nations: Baseline Study 1996 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was done by George Wilkenfeld and Associates to the Forum Secretariat Energy Division. This study was commissioned by the Forum Secretariat Energy Division, to gather information needed to make decisions on the establishment of a labelling program on a regional (or sub-regional) basis. The study was to provide an assessment of the most efficient way to develop a uniform labelling scheme and of the appropriate stringency of MEPS for the selected appliances. The Forum Secretariat Energy Division nominated three countries for direct participation in the study: Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Tonga. The authors visited those countries and held extensive discussions with representatives of government departments and agencies, the electricity utilities, and a wide range of appliance retailers and contractors.

Manual of Perfomance Benchmarking for Pacific Power Utilities, September 2012 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This Manual is a joint publication of the Pacific Power Association (PPA) and the Pacific Regional Infrastructure Facility (PRIF). This edition of the Power Benchmarking Manual draws upon the original Benchmarking Manual published by the Pacific Power Association in 2002 and funded by the Asian Development Bank. The contents of the 2002 version form the basis of Section 1 of this edition. In response to feedback received through the 2011 Benchmarking Report, sections have been added to cover the benchmarking questionnaire, explanation of key performance indicators and sample calculations, and an introduction to Performance Improvement Plans.

This Manual was designed to encourage Pacific power utilities to continue undertaking benchmarking activities. The Manual is comprised of easy-to-follow guidelines to ensure benchmarking participation is effective and efficient and results in maximum on-going activities. Manual is structured as follows:

  1. The Benchmarking Process
  2. Benchmarking Questionnaire
  3. Kep Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  4. Examples of KPI Calculations
  5. Data Reliability Assessment
  6. Performance Improvement Plans.

Report was sourced from the PPA website - http://www.ppa.org.fj/publication-report/ 

 Keywords - Utilities benchmarking report, PPA benchmarking report, 2012

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Final Report Performance Benchmarking for Pacific Power Utilities, October 2002 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the current round of benchmarking for Pacific power utilities. The objective of Pacific power benchmarking is to stimulate analysis and improvement in performance of participants. 

This benchmarking project has been performed through the following phases:

  1. Design of questionnaireand conduct of a survey relating to 2001 data (or closestyear data available); 
  2. Conduct of a number of participatory workshop; 
  3. Review of progressive results at the 2001 and 2002 Pacific Power Association (PPA) annual conferences.

It is intended that in future Pacific power utility benchmarking will be conducted annually on a self-funded basis through the PPA.

The following document was accessed from the PPA Website at the followng link - http://www.ppa.org.fj/publication-report/ 

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Renewable Power Generation Cost in 2014 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2014 is one of the most comprehensive studies yet made on the renewable energy price revolution in the power sector. Its findings are striking. Solar photovoltaic (PV) modules in 2014 cost three-quarters less than in 2009, while wind turbine prices declined by almost a third over the same period. The cost of electricity from utility-scale PV systems has fallen by around half since 2010.

Still, wide price disparities remain among renewable energy technologies, as well as between different countries and regions. While such gaps sometimes relate to resource availability, they also reflect an array of market conditions, balance-of-system costs, regulations and risk perceptions. Major challenges remain to bring down the cost of finance , especially in developed countries, and the high transaction costs for small-scale projects.

Nonetheless, the trend is clear. Renewable power generation will keep getting cheaper over time, even in a period of falling oil prices, which history tells us will in all probability be transitory. Renewables development and deployment represents the most secure long-term hedge against fuel price volatility, the best route to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and a sound financial investment. Their future is bright indeed.

Wind Resource Maps of the Far East Islands 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by AWS Truewind for the World Bank. Using its WindSurvey system, AWS has produced maps of the predicted long term annual wind speed at heights of 12, 25 and 45 meters above ground and with a grid spacing of 1000m for the Far East Islands (PNG, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji). The wind maps indicate that the low lying areas in southwestern Papua New Guinea has the best wind resource in that country. These speeds can be partially attributed to low surface roughness values and their perpendicular orientation  to the prevailing southeasterly winds. A high resolution WindSurvey configuration was used to produce the wind resource maps.

Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) PEEP2 - Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Hotels in the Pacific 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Hotels in the Pacific were developed as a part of PEEP2 in order to provide practical guidance on how hotels and hotel staff could achieve considerable costs savings and improve environmental performance while retaining or improving existing comfort levels for guests.

The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Hotels in the Pacific is a practical handbook with simple recommendations that can help new and existing hotels to significantly lower their costs and GHG emissions by reducing their energy consumption. These guidelines address how hotel management and operational staff can improve energy performance and reduce operating costs of the hotel, highlighting the importance and functionality of energy management systems.

Carbon fluxes at the water-sediment interface in Reunion Island fringing reef 2019-06-12

biogeochemistry brcommunity field indian ocean-acidification physiology primary-production respiration sediment south-pacific

To assess the contribution of soft-bottoms to the carbon cycle in coral reefs, the net community production (p) was measured in winter at 3 stations on La Saline inner reef flat (Reunion Island). Changes in pH and total alkalinity at different irradiances (I) were assessed using benthic chambers (0.2 m²) during a 1-h incubation. Mean grain size, the silt and clay load and chlorophyll a content of the sediments were analysed in each chamber. Daily community production (P), gross community production (Pg) and community respiration (R) were estimated from p-I curves and daily irradiance variations (PAR, 400-700 nm). Sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a contents did not differ between the three sites, except for the silt and clay fraction at one station. R being higher than Pg (84.88 ± 7.36 and -62.29 ± 3.34 mmolC m-2 d-1 respectively), P value reached 22.59 ± 5.66 mmolC m-2 d-1. The sediments were therefore heterotrophic with a mean Pg/R lower than 1 (0.74 ± 0.05) and appear to be a carbon source. Our data suggested the importance of the degradation process in the functioning of near-reef sediments.

Compendium of Case Studies on Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the Pacific 2015 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This compendium showcases programmes and projects from across the Pacific region that address climate change and disaster risks, through climate change adaptation (CCA), disaster risk management (DRM) and/or greenhouse gas emissions reduction.

These forty case studies cover different topics across Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) and showcase significant work undertaken by the region to address climate and disaster-related challenges and to build resilience.

These actions have occurred while the regional policy frameworks on climate change (Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change 2006-2015) and DRM (Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management: A Framework for Action 2005–2015) have been in effect. Both frameworks expire in 2015 and are superseded by the Strategy for Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the Pacific (SRDP).

Trends, challenges, solutions and lessons are drawn from these case studies, which may serve as a guide for the design of future initiatives to be implemented under the SRDP and provide a reference for the Pacific and other regions of the world.

Acknowledgements

The Compendium of Case Studies on Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the Pacific was compiled by Clare White of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community’s (SPC) Geoscience Division with the support from the Roadmap Technical Working Group, comprising representatives from SPC, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS), United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the University of the South Pacific (USP).

Strategic guidance was provided by the Roadmap Steering Committee comprising representatives from governments of Pacific Island countries and territories as well as representatives from civil society and the private sector.

Funding of the compendium was provided by the European Union, through the EDF10 ACP-EU/SPC Project: Building Safety & Resilience in the Pacific and the Global Climate Change Alliance: Pacific Small Island States project, as well as by SPREP and the Government of Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade through the Australian Red Cross (AVID).

Organisations, governments, and communities from across the Pacific region provided content and photographs.

Renewable Energy Opportunities and Challenges in the Pacific Region - Papua New Guinea 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by the International Renewable Energy Agency. IRENA, in collaboration with its members and other key development partners, will continue to support the development national roadmaps and strategies aimed at enhanced deployment of renewables in the Pacific and other island states and territories. The report consists of an overview roadmap framework and 15 island-specific studies on the respective energy situations, and the challenges and opportunities for renewable energy deployment, around the region. These studies are available for the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Fiji, Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Nauru, Niue, the Republic of Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, the Kingdom of Tonga, Tokelau, Tuvalu and the Republic of Vanuatu.

UNDP Asia - Pacific Regional Energy Programme for Poverty Reduction (REP-POR) - Pacific Rapid Assesment and Gap Analysis. Draft Final Report 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by Herbert Wade and Peter Johnston for UNDP Regional Centre in Bangkok. The purpose of this assignment was to undertake a rapid needs assessment and gap analysis of the fifteen Pacific Island Countries that potentially can participate in the UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Energy Program for Poverty Reduction (REP-PoR).  Ideally, such a study would involve travel to each country to allow extensive local input and as much discussion in-country as possible.

This REP PoR Pacific Rapid Assessment and Gap Analysis report is presented in three parts:

  • This overview, Section 1, which summaries key issues and findings and acts as an introduction to the Pacific Regional Synthesis;

  • The Pacific Regional Synthesis, Section 2, in the form of a table prepared in a format specified by the Lead Consultant of the REP-PoR Rapid Assessment and Gap Analysis for ease of integration of findings into a combined Asia/Pacific REP-PoR rapid assessment and gap analysis report; and
  • The Pacific Island Country Summaries, Section 3, which provides background information in the REP PoR-specified format and country-specific conclusions and recommendations for the fifteen PICs.

 

A stand-alone “Gender and Energy Add-on Consultancy Report: Pacific Rapid Assessment and Gap Analysis” written by Ms. Ravesi Johnston has also been prepared. It expands on Ms Johnston’s coverage of gender issues presented in chapter VI. 

Survey Of Renewable Energy Utilisation and Development Potential In Oceania 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by S D Sharma, G J Duffy and J H Edwards of CSIRO Energy Technology for  the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan. The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), an administration and implementation arm of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in Japan has contracted CSIRO Energy Technology to undertake research on actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries. The South Pacific countries specified by NEDO for this study are Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Fiji, Solomon Islands, Western Samoa, Republic of Vanuatu, Federated States of Micronesia, Kingdom of Tonga, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands and Republic of Nauru. The types of renewable energy to be covered in this study are Solar photo voltaic (PV), Solar thermal, Wind, Biomass, Hydro (including mini and micro hydro) and Geothermal.

Seasonal and bleaching-induced changes in coral reef metabolism and CO 2 flux 2019-06-12

101594pangaea718250 biogeochemistry biological-response calcification corals field north-pacific oaiccdb ocean-acidification physiology primary-production respiration

Monitoring seawater CO2 for a full year with seasonal observations of community metabolism in Ishigaki Island, Japan, revealed seasonal variation and anomalous values owing to the bleaching event in 1998. The daily average pCO2 showed a seasonal pattern on an annual scale, 280 to 320 $μ$atm in winter and 360 to 400 $μ$atm in summer, which was determined primarily by the seasonal change in seawater temperature. By contrast, the range in the diel variation in pCO2, 400 to 500 $μ$atm in summer 200 to 300 $μ$atm in winter, was attributed to the seasonal variation in community metabolism: Gross primary production (Pg) and respiration (R) were high in summer and low in winter. During the 1998 bleaching event, although Pg and R increased, community excess organic production (E) decreased by three quarters compared with the same month in 1999, when the coral community showed high recovery. This change in metabolism led to large diel range and increased average value of pCO2 levels in the seawater on the reef flat. The decrease in the range and increase in the average value of pCO2 were observed by monitoring the Palau barrier reef flat, where overall mortality of corals occurred after the bleaching. All the metabolic parameters, Pg, R, E and calcification (G) were reduced by half after the bleaching, which increased the average pCO2 value by 10 $μ$atm and decreased its diel range from 200–400 $μ$atm to 100–200 $μ$atm. Bleaching and resultant mortality of coral reefs led to degradation of their metabolic performance, and thus resulted in the loss of their active interaction with the carbon cycle.

The Age of Renewable Power - Designing National Roadmaps For a Successful Transformation 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report focuses on the role that national policy makers will play in this transformation process. The main challenge being that there is not a single roadmap or technology that provides the solution. Each country situation is unique, and local solutions need to be found to support the transition towards a renewables-based power system. It is therefore very important that policy makers work together with generators, local system operators and electricity suppliers to collectively design the future.

The report provides a framework for the development of such roadmaps. The framework focuses on the process that determines the relevant grid integration measures, how this choice depends on the local conditions within the specific country, and how to ensure that all stakeholders involved are aligned, turning ambitious targets into a reality. The foundation for the development of a national roadmap is stakeholder engagement. Subsequently, policy makers need to put three pillars in place to support the selection of relevant grid integration measures for variable renewable energy: data collection and energy planning; flexibility assessment; and technology evaluation

Building Energy Codes Report For Papua New Guinea 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

This report was prepared by the Building Codes Assistance Project of the Alliance to Save Energy.

Papua New Guinea is a small economy with very few strictly implemented building energy codes. Projections of a near term shift in energy status, from a net exporter to a net importer, plus concerns over global climate change and costs of energy, generally, point to the opportunities that energy efficiency and conservation provide for Papua New Guinea. As current energy resources are being depleted, implementing energy efficient practices and investing in renewable forms of energy provide the key to a sustainable future for this and every nation.

Papua New Guinea has adopted building codes based on those in Australia.  As of May 1, 2009, Australia enacted the 2009 Building Code of Australia (BCA‐2009), developed and maintained by the Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB).  In Australia, this performance‐based code is amended and updated annually every 1st of May.  The codes cover structure, fire resistance, services, equipment, energy efficiency, and certain aspects of health and amenities. As a small island economy with a constant threat of rising water levels and earthquakes, adopting Australian building codes helps Papua New Guinea to enforce the construction of safe, structurally sound buildings and homes.   Research was unable to ascertain the level to which Papua New Guinea enforces the code.  

Keywords: Papua New Guinea, Building Energy Codes, Building Code of Australia

Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) - Papua New Guinea (PNG) 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

The main mitigation contribution for PNG would be in terms of an indicative replacement of fossil fuelled electricity generation with renewable energy sources. PNG will opt for a national target in the electricity sector in terms of becoming carbon free by a 2030 target date. Other mitigation options are energy efficiency, oil & gas sector, transport and forestry/land use.

PNG submitted their Intended nationally determined contributions (INDC) to the UNFCCC Secretariat on the 30th of September 2015.

No further revisions were undertaken and the same document was endorsed and submitted as the First nationally determined contributions on 24th March 2016.

Document downloaded from the NDC registry:

INDC -  http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx

NDC - http://www4.unfccc.int/ndcregistry/Pages/All.aspx 

Keywords: INDC, RE, renewable energy, target, PNG, , NAMA, mitigation, climate change, adaptation, conditional, unconditional, electricity, BAU, GHG, greenhouse gas, electricity, energy efficiency, forestry

Publisher: Pacific Data Hub Contact Point: Pacific Data Hub Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Pacific Energy Country Profiles 2016 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

FOREWORD :

In 2013, New Zealand and the European Union co-hosted the Pacific Energy Summit to fast-track sustainable energy development in the Pacific. It resulted in funding commitments of more than $635 million for a range of innovative renewable energy projects, and showed that donors and the private sector were prepared to back the ambition and leadership shown by Pacific governments. Three years on and the change across the region has been marked. Whole atolls are now 100 per cent renewable, many more people have access to clean and reliable power, the amount of diesel imported for electricity generation has fallen dramatically, and Pacific countries can now better manage the impacts of climate change.

The Pacific is home to some of the countries most at risk from the effects of climate change. It is now also home to countries that are leading the world in reducing their fossil fuel consumption and shifting to renewable sources of electricity generation. We also acknowledge the huge contribution of donors and development partners in supporting Pacific governments to achieve progress and following through on the commitments made at the Summit. Enormous opportunities still exist across the region.

This publication presents the energy profiles of 18 Pacific countries and territories. It summarises their progress since the 2013 Summit and identifies new opportunities for investment. 

Keywords: Pacific Energy Summit, Pacific Energy country profile, Pacific countries, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT), European Union, Electricity, Renewable energy, Propose projects for investments.

Stocktake Report: Energy Sector Institutions, Legislation, Policies and Fiscal Incentives of Pacific Island Countries 2019-03-17

Built Environment energy

Stocktake Report: Energy Sector Institutions, Legislation, Policies and Fiscal Incentives of Pacific Island Countries. Prepared by the Energy Programme of the Economic Development Diviion of The Pacific Community (SPC). 

This report is a first attempt to take stock of the energy sector institutions, regulatory frameworks and legislation, as well as the policies and incentives that exist in Pacific Island countries (PICs). While there are various reports on PICs’ policies and renewable energy assessments, there has not yet been a comprehensive report that captures the existing institutional set-ups, regulatory frameworks, legislation, policies and incentives. 

ByCatch Information 2018-06-10

Coastal and Marine billfish bycatch database fmro spc

The Bycatch Management Information System (BMIS) focuses on bycatch mitigation and management in oceanic tuna and billfish fisheries*. It is an open resource useful for fishery managers, fishers, scientists, observers, educators and anyone with an interest in fisheries management. As a reference and educational tool, the BMIS aims to support the adoption and implementation of science-based management measures so that bycatch is managed comprehensively and sustainably. The BMIS mainly focuses on highly migratory species with low reproductive rates, including seabirds, sharks and rays, sea turtles and marine mammals.

Convention on Biological Diversity Cartagena Documents 2018-06-04

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Coastal and Marine akwé: kon voluntary guidelines biodiversity biosafety biotechnology cartagena protocol cbd conservation diversity ecosystems genetic impacts in situ iucn meetings resources small island developing states traditional knowledge

Guidelines, brochures, Indicators and published work on the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity which is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.

Invasive Species Management in the Pacific: A Review of National Plans 2010 2019-02-25

Biodiversity invasive species nbsap

This review was undertaken to examine the invasive species management components within the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans of twelve Pacific island countries (PICs): Cook Islands, Fiji, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu.

The results of the review show that invasive species management is included as a component in eleven National
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans, Marshall Islands being the only country not to include invasive species
management at the time.

NOAA Coral Reef Watch 2018-11-18

Coastal and Marine bleaching coral coral bleaching model noaa outlook reef satellite

The NOAA Coral Reef Watch program uses satellite data to provide current reef environmental conditions to quickly identify areas at risk for coral bleaching. Bleaching is the process by which corals lose the symbiotic algae that give them their distinctive colors. If a coral is severely bleached, disease and death become likely. Coral Reef Watch also offers a modeled Outlook that predicts the likelihood of coral bleaching heat stress on a week-by-week basis, up to four months in the future (the typical length of a bleaching season).

Human Rights and Climate Change Law 2019-02-18

Atmosphere and Climate climate change climate change law cop cop21 human rights human rights law international law international legal framework journal of the south pacific law kyoto protocol law unfccc

This Special Issue of the Journal of South Pacific Law aims to provide insight into the role of international law in addressing the short-term and long-term challenges posed by climate change to Pacific Island States and their populations. It focuses on the two international legal frameworks that were designed to protect the Earth’s climate system and the human person: international climate change law on the one hand, and international human rights law on the other.

Practical guide to solid waste management in Pacific Island Countries & Territories 2019-04-04

Land jprism landfill improvement solid waste waste generation waste management

This Practical Guide is the compilation of good practices identified and developed by experts in the region through J-PRISM Phase I. This covers all solid waste management (SWM) issues from the technical ones, such as waste generation survey and landfill improvement, to the managerial ones, such as contract management and user pays system. These good practices have high applicability to other Pacific islands, although modification and adaptation are always necessary.

Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as an Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks 2019-02-25

Coastal and Marine acidic injection coastal communities coral reef ecosystem corallivorous crown of thorns cots crown of thorns marine resources natural alternatives reef vanuatu

Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. This research paper documents a test of a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products that was carried out in Vanuatu where the presence of COTS has frequently been reported.

The paper concluded that the injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practices and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS

Marine Opportunity Costs: A method for calculating opportunity costs to multiple stakeholder groups 2019-02-25

Coastal and Marine marine marine opportunity costs opportunity costs

This study seek to address the following 5 main questions:

(1) Where are the preferred target species located and what spatial models serve as the best predictors of species abundance;
(2) Where in Kubulau is current fishing effort focused and how does it vary by gear;
(3) What are the differences in opportunity costs across users of different fishing gear, based on current and potential costs;
(4) Where would be the best areas to modify the current MPA network to reduce conflict and improve fisheries benefits and which users would be most affected by these changes; and
(5) How can this model be applied to other resource management decisions?

Effects of Climate Change on Fish and Shellfish 2019-03-06

Atmosphere and Climate Coastal and Marine climate change effects coastal fisheries fisheries marine invetebrates marine vetebrates shellfish

In the Pacific Islands region, fish and invertebrates (specifically shellfish) fulfill important ecological roles in coastal and oceanic habitats, and many species are targeted by fisheries, making vital contributions to food security, livelihoods, government revenue and cultural heritage. This report discusses how climate change is expected to have profound effects on the status and distribution of coastal and oceanic habitats, the fish and invertebrates they support and, as a result, the productivity of fisheries and aquaculture

Pacific Islands Ocean Acidification Vulnerability Assessment 2019-02-18

Coastal and Marine acidification aquaculture climate change fisheries food security livelihood ocean ocean acidification ocean chemistry oceanic habitats pacific ocean ph vulnerability assessment

This report summarises the projected changes in ocean chemistry for the Pacific island region (from 130°E to 130°W and 25°N to 25°S) at regional and sub-regional scales, assessing the vulnerability of Pacific coastal and oceanic habitats and fisheries to ocean acidification using an established framework, and discussing the implications for the Pacific island communities dependent on fisheries and aquaculture for food security and livelihood

Effects of Climate Change on Extreme Events 2019-03-06

Atmosphere and Climate climate change extreme events pacific cmss

Pacific Island Commonwealth Member States (Pacific CMSs) are highly vulnerable to climate change (high confidence; robust evidence, high agreement). Impacts of climate change on extreme events relevant to Pacific CMSs vary, dependent on the magnitude, frequency, and temporal and spatial extent of the event, as well as on the biophysical nature of the island and its social, economic, and political setting (high confidence). This paper assesses the impacts of climate change on extreme events on nine Pacific CMSs – Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

Monitoring and Management of the humphead wrasse 2019-02-25

Coastal and Marine destructive fishing fisheries management humphead wrasse marine resources overfishing

The humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus is a small but important part of the international trade in live reef food fish, being one of the highest species in unit value. The main threats of the live reef food fish trade to the sustainability of the species are overfishing and the effects of destructive fishing on the target species, non-target species and on the reef environment. In this context this report discusses the core elements of a management system for humphead wrasse, making considerations about major fisheries management objectives, management measures, enforcement, monitoring and fisheries assessment.

The Wealth of Islands : Global Call for Conservation 2006 2018-05-28

Land Biodiversity 2006 biodiversity loss convention of biological diversity diversity drivers islands livelihoods millenium ecosystems assessment threats wealth

This brochure drew significantly from a technical publication by Deda et al. (submitted for publication to Natural Resources Forum), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report on Island Systems by Wong et al. 2005, the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Island Biodiversity, which met in Tenerife in 2004 and the draft programme of work on island biodiversity adopted by the Subsidiary Body for Scientifc, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) at its tenth meeting in 2005

78 Development Bulletin 2018-05-29

Built Environment Culture and Heritage 2017 cities development development bulletin governance land access pacific pacific way policy politics settlements urban urban services urbinisation

The Development Bulletin has, for 28 years, been the journal of the Development Studies Network based at the Australian National University. It is an occasional publication providing at least one issue a year. The journal includes commissioned and submitted papers and is available in hard copy or online for free download. Each issue focuses on a specific, topical development theme providing a multi-disciplinary perspective on a range of opinions on development activities, theories, and research. The papers in DB are short and concise with a word limit of 3,500. Authors include academics, non academics, development professionals, those working in non government and government organisations, consultants, teachers, community leaders, politicians and students of development. The 78 issues of Development Bulletin are available online. Together, they provide a valuable history of social and economic development, development theory, policy, practice and development studies.

InforMEA - United Nations Information Portal on Multilateral Environmental Agreements 2018-11-26

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Coastal and Marine agreements informea multilateral environment agreements online course pull treaties

InforMEA provides easy access to information on Multilateral Environmental Agreements. It is an initiative facilitated by the United Nations Environment Programme and supported by the European Union. It seeks to develop Inter-operable information systems for the benefit of the (MEA) Parties and the environment community at large.
This dataset provides direct links to:
1. "Pacific Islands" - related data on the InforMEA portal. For country-specific information, please type name of country on the InforMEA portal search tool.
2. Free online courses

Pacific Islands Regional Marine Species 2019-02-07

Coastal and Marine dolphin dugong eez marine species migratory species pacific ocean turtle whale

The Marine Species Programme of the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) outlines a regional strategy for the cooperative conservation and management of dugongs, marine turtles, whales and dolphins. This strategy will enable Pacific Islanders to take a primary role in achieving the following vision:

"A healthy Pacific Ocean with sustainable populations of whales, dolphins, marine turtles, dugongs and other species, and meets the aspirations of Pacific Island peoples and protects their natural and cultural heritage"

Strategic Plan for the Conservation and Management of Marine Resources in the Pacific region 2019-02-25

Coastal and Marine fisheries marine management marine resources marine resources strategic plan noaa pacific islands region strategic plan

This Strategic Plan provides an integrated overview of a science based to living marine resource conservation and management in the Pacific Islands Region. The goals and objectives reflect here also generally reflect NOAA Fisheries national goals with appropriate acknowledgements of the unique cultural, historical, geographical and ecological features that characterize the people and living marine resources of the region

State of Conservation Reports - Territories 2019-04-25

Biodiversity Coastal and Marine Inland Waters conservation french polynesia guam indicators northern mariana islands pitcairn islands regional regional soe soe state of conservation reports tokelau wallis and futuna

For the Ninth Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas December 2013, the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) commissioned an assessment of the status of biodiversity and conservation in Oceania.

This dataset holds all the reports that assesses the overall state of conservation in;

  • Guam

  • French Polynesia

  • Northern Mariana Islands

  • Tokelau

  • Wallis and Futuna

  • Pitcairn Islands

These reports weren't published but were sent to country for checking (2013) - to be used for the Regional SOE initiative 2019

InterRidge Vents Database 2018-11-20

Coastal and Marine active vent hydrothermal interridge global submarine vent vent

Direct internet link to the InterRidge Global Database of active submarine hydro-thermal vent fields. The database includes a vocabulary of vent field names and information that may be useful in mapping, including position (latitude, longitude), depth, region, tectonic setting category, national jurisdiction, and ocean. Additional information in the database includes names of individual vent sites within vent fields, spreading rate for those vent fields at spreading centers, maximum temperature or temperature category (high or low) for active vent fields, and notes on site description, deposit type, host rock, and biology for some of the vent fields.

Pacific experiences with modalities relevant for Climate Change Financing 2019-04-28

Atmosphere and Climate climate change climate change finance climate financing climate funds finances forum secretariat modalities

The Forum Secretariat in collaboration with a number of Member countries, Council of Regional Organisations in the Pacific (CROP) and development partners is exploring a range of modalities, approaches and enabling environments that might assist countries to more effectively harness climate change resources and implement them to address national priorities. A number of these modalities are already being implemented or explored in the region and provide a practical experience to draw from -

This booklet therefore presents a compilation of some of these practical experiences and has been contributed to by a number of countries and partners in the region.

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species - Golden Crownbeard 2019-02-25

Biodiversity golden crownbeard herbaceous plants invasive plants verbesina encelioides

Verbesina encelioides, a gray, golden crownbeard, is a sunflower-like herbaceous annual plant ranging in height from 0.3 to 1.7 m with showy yellow flowers. It is native to the southwestern United States, the Mexican Plateau, and other parts of tropical America. Its invasive characteristics include high seed production (as many as 300–350 seeds per flower and multiple flowers per plant), seed dormancy, ability to tolerate dry conditions, and possible allelopathic effects. Many other Pacific islands with similar habitats could be invaded by V. encelioides

This research stresses out that Verbesina encelioides can be controlled via herbicides or mechanical means, but measures must be repeated due to the presence of persistent seed banks. Further research on V. encelioides is needed to understand its population dynamics, allelopathic properties, and impacts on natural ecosystems.

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Quick Guide 2019-04-16

Biodiversity aichi biodiversity targets biodiversity targets

This document contains a set of quick guides on each of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The guides provide an overview of the main issues addressed under each target. They aim to provide Parties and other stakeholders with an introduction to each of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by quickly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, providing guiding questions for consideration as part of national target setting exercises, providing ideas for preliminary national actions, identifying possible indicators to monitor progress and identifying further resources.

EIA Guidelines for Coastal Tourism Development in Pacific Island Countries and Territories 2019-02-18

Built Environment coastal tourism development eia emp environment environmental impact assessment green growth targets guideline impact assessment pacific region tourism

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool that is used to assess and manage individual development projects, with an aim of maximising positive benefits and minimising negative impacts for local communities and their environment. When used effectively, EIA can help to support the achievement of green growth targets, climate change resilience, and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

This EIA is for the purpose of guiding tourism operations towards responsible planning, development and management of coastal tourism, to help ensure that the sector does not degrade important coastal areas, and that it makes a positive overall contribution to Pacific island countries and territories.

Large Marine Ecosystems Status and Trends - Summary for Policy Makers 2019-02-26

Coastal and Marine Inland Waters ecosystem trans-boundary water system twap

The water systems of the world — aquifers, lakes, rivers, large marine ecosystems, and open ocean — sustain the
biosphere and underpin the health and socioeconomic well-being of the world’s population. Many of these systems are shared by two or more nations. Recognizing the value of trans-boundary water systems, and the reality that many of them continue to be over-exploited and degraded, and managed in fragmented ways, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) initiated the Trans-boundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP). The Programme aims to provide a baseline assessment to identify and evaluate changes in these water systems caused by human activities and natural processes, as well as the consequences these changes may have on the human populations dependent upon them.

Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies (APPS) Working Paper Series 04/2013 October 2013 2018-05-29

Built Environment Culture and Heritage 2013 asia assessment club theory pacific pacific island countries policy studies political economy regionalism sids small island developing states

This research is part of the Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies (APPS) Working Paper Series 04/ published October 2013. The Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal that targets research in policy studies in Asia and the Pacific. The Journal aims to break down barriers across disciplines and generate policy impact. Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies has funding support from the aid agency of the Australian Government’s development assistance agency, AusAID, and commissions research in areas of particular interest to the Journal's editors and AusAID.

Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, Mitigation and Indigenous People 2019-02-17

Atmosphere and Climate adaptation climate change environmental change indigenous communities indigenous people mitigation resilience

This compendium presents a wide-ranging overview of more than 400 projects, case studies and research activities specifically related to climate change and Indigenous Peoples. It provides a sketch of the climate and environmental changes, local observations and impacts being felt by communities in different regions, and outlines various adaptation and mitigation strategies that are currently being implemented by Indigenous Peoples

State of Conservation in Oceania - Regional Report 2018-12-12

Biodiversity biodiversity climate change conservation ecosystem environmental governance habitats indicators oceania over-exploitation species

This report assesses the overall state of conservation in the Pacific Islands region of Oceania, that is, the 21 countries and territories covered by SPREP plus Pitcairn Island. The report uses an analysis of 16 indicators chosen in consultation with SPREP and based on the Global Biodiversity Indicator project (http://www.bipindicators.net). The indicators used are those considered to best provide an overview of the key issues facing conservation in Oceania, whilst recognizing the need to use indicators for which a reasonable amount of information was thought to be available. The indicators provide information about the state of ecosystems and species, pressures acting upon these ecosystems and species, and what action is being taken to halt further loss or degradation and improve long-term sustainability.

Publisher: Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme Contact Point: Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Infrastructure expansion challenges sustainable development in Papua New Guinea 2019-07-25

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters No keyword provided

The island of New Guinea hosts the third largest expanse of tropical rainforest on the planet. Papua New Guinea—comprising the eastern half of the island—plans to nearly double its national road network (from 8,700 to 15,000 km) over the next three years, to spur economic growth. We assessed these plans using fine-scale biophysical and environmental data. We identified numerous environmental and socioeconomic risks associated with these projects, including the dissection of 54 critical biodiversity habitats and diminished forest connectivity across large expanses of the island. Key habitats of globally endangered species including Goodfellow’s tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi), Matchie’s tree kangaroo (D. matschiei), and several birds of paradise would also be bisected by roads and opened up to logging, hunting, and habitat conversion. Many planned roads would traverse rainforests and carbon-rich peatlands, contradicting Papua New Guinea’s international commitments to promote low-carbon development and forest conservation for climate-change mitigation. Planned roads would also create new deforestation hotspots via rapid expansion of logging, mining, and oil-palm plantations. Our study suggests that several planned road segments in steep and high-rainfall terrain would be extremely expensive in terms of construction and maintenance costs. This would create unanticipated economic challenges and public debt. The net environmental, social, and economic risks of several planned projects—such as the Epo-Kikori link, Madang-Baiyer link, Wau-Malalaua link, and some other planned projects in the Western and East Sepik Provinces—could easily outstrip their overall benefits. Such projects should be reconsidered under broader environmental, economic, and social grounds, rather than short-term economic considerations.

2019 PNG State of the Environment Report _First Draft 16.07.19 2019-07-16

Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine Culture and Heritage Inland Waters No keyword provided

PNG is endowed with rich natural resources and culture and is known as one of the cultural and mega biodiversity hotspots globally. Located on the eastern part of the island of New Guinea, PNG contains roughly 1 percent of the global landmass, with four major islands and over 600 islands and atolls. PNG also has one of the diverse reef system in the world and has a total of 3.12 square kilometers of economic exclusive zone (EEZ) of marine territory. Over 840 spoken languages exist and spoken by over 1000 different tribes.

State of Conservation Report - PNG 2019-04-29

Land Biodiversity Coastal and Marine Inland Waters 2013 conservation indicators regional soe soco state of conservation report

For the Ninth Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas December 2013, the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) commissioned an assessment of the status of biodiversity and conservation in Oceania. This report assesses the overall state of conservation in Papua New Guinea using 16 indicators.

this report wasn't published but was sent to country for checking (2013) - to be used for the Regional SOE initiative 2019

Sepik wetlands management initiative 2019-04-23

Inland Waters sepik river sepik wetlands management initiative swmi wetlands

Sepik Wetlands Management Initiative has promoted crocodile and wetlands conservation work in the Sepik (longest river on the island of New Guinea) through various strategies. These have included raising community awareness of the importance of wetlands and wetland resources; the facilitation of a sustainable crocodile egg harvesting program between community members and a commercial collector; increasing local awareness of and taking action on controlling the spread of invasive species; crocodile population monitoring; and developing community-driven wetlands and wetland resources management plans.

The link between community participation in conservation and the viability of livelihood activities based on natural resource management has been at the centre of SWMI’s work.

An assessment of the trade in hawksbill turtles 2019-04-23

Coastal and Marine eretmochelys imbricata hawkspill marine turtles tortoise shell turtles

Between May and August 2007, the lead author conducted surveys of retail outlets in nine regional centres across eight provinces in Papua New Guinea. The aim was to gain a contemporary overview of the country’s trade in marine turtles and marine turtle products. Information such as volumes of trade, number of traders, trade dynamics, possible sources of marine turtles, species involved in the trade, trade routes, and end destinations was gathered through informal and semi-structured interviews with market sellers, artifact retailers, hotel staff and discussions with members of the public.

Reef and mangrove survey reports for Barakau village 2019-04-23

2006 barakau international waters project iwp mangrove reef

This report was produced by SPREP’s International Waters Project which has two main components. The oceanic component focuses on the management and conservation of tuna stocks in the western central Pacific. The focus of the coastal component is on integrated coastal watershed management.

Barakau was selected as the host site for a number of reasons. These were: (i) relatively easy accessibility from Port Moresby, (ii) manageable population size, (iii) environmental issues relevant to IWP focal areas and (iv) degree of understanding of these environmental concerns by the people and their apparent preparedness to address them.

First biennial update report (BUR) to UNFCCC 2018 2019-04-18

Atmosphere and Climate Land Biodiversity Built Environment Coastal and Marine climate change green house gas papua new guinea png redd+ unfccc

The Papua New Guinea Government submits PNG’s first Biennial Update Report (BUR1) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report follows the BUR guidelines for developing countries according to paragraphs 39 to 42 of Decision 2/CP.17 and its Annex III. This first BUR presents an overview of PNG’s national circumstances relevant to climate change, summary results of the inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks for years 2000 through to 2015, and also presents information related to identified mitigation actions; constraints and gaps; the financial support received in relation to climate change activities and related financial, technical and capacity needs, including a description of support needed and received; information on national circumstances and institutional arrangements relevant to the preparation of national communications on a continuous basis; and information about the domestic MRV (measurement, reporting and verification). This BUR also includes the Technical Annex referred to in decision 14/CP.19, paragraph 7, containing the results achieved from REDD+ activities by PNG.

WCS PNG - 2018 Annual Report 2019-04-11

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The WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society Program) is the longest established international conservation NGO within PNG, and has been undertaking conservation work in the country since the 1970s. The vision of WCS PNG is: “Gutpela sindaun, gutpela solwara, gutpela bus”, which translates to, “Empowered people with healthy forests and seas”.

This report is an annual update for the year 2018, documenting the highlights from the discovery science, conservation initiatives, outreach and capacity building programs and growing partnerships, which are measured against the WCS Melanesia 2020 Strategy.

PNG IUCN Redlist data 2019-04-02

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Download from IUCN www.iucnredlist.org on 2nd of April 2019

Publisher: PNG Conservation and Environment Protection Authority Contact Point: Nicho Gowep Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

Global Forest Watch tree cover stats 2000-2017 2019-04-02

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PNG's forest cover loss 2000-2017 downloaded from www.globalforestwatch.org

From 2001 to 2017, Papua New Guinea lost 1.28Mha of tree cover, equivalent to a 3.0% decrease since 2000, and 158Mt of CO₂ of emissions.

Publisher: PNG Conservation and Environment Protection Authority Contact Point: Global Forest Watch Source: Papua New Guinea Environment Data Portal

7th National Report(PNG)_UNCCD 2019-02-20

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The country has submitted its latest report using the PRAIS portal for the UNCCD. It is the latest report that was being submitted.

ECA Newletter 5 July-December 2018 2019-02-14

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Letter From the Director David K Mitchell
Welcome to our fifth ECA newsletter for Eco Custodian Advocates, As we enter our third year we can look back and see that we are making both environmental and life impact of our place. Our lead story is on turtle satellite tagging with youth from Ole Island - 1808 Atlas of D’Entrecasteaux voyage. But 2018 is leaning towards an El Nino year and it seems the migration for nesting this season is not on. We look at why not.
We had an Adelaide University student with us in this work who had been drawn by Gwala Rising.
We mutually gained from this experience. Gwala too was shown within PNG, on NBCTV, at a
Conservation Seminar, at UPNG and in the 6th Human Rights Film Festival. Again too much to summarise so please take a look through to see what has been driving us at this time.

National Strategy for Responsible Sustainable Development for Papua New Guinea,2014 2018-12-19

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PNG government want a responsible sustainable use of the natural and cultural resources of the country for the benefit of the present and future generations. The central theme of this new development road map presented by StaRS is to shift the country’s socio-economic growth away from the current unsustainable growth strategy that it is following and towards a road map that is truly responsible, sustainable and able to place PNG in a competitive, advantageous position into the future.

Climate Risk and Adaptation Country Profile-Papua New Guinea 2018-12-17

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At 463,000 square kilometers, Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the largest Pacific island state. Located in the South
West Pacific, it is bound by the Gulf of Guinea and the Coral Sea to the south, Indonesia to the west, the Solomon
Sea to the east, and the Bismarck Sea to the northeast. PNG comprises the eastern half of New Guinea island, four additional islands (Manus, New Ireland, New Britain, and Bougainville), and 600 smaller islets and atolls to the north and east. PNG is home to a diverse range of ecosystems, including mountain glaciers, humid tropical
rainforests, swampy wetlands, and immaculate coral reefs. Approximately 30% of the country’s landmass is covered by forests and four of the world’s remaining significant forests are found in PNG. In addition to harboring abundant natural resources such as gold, copper, oil and natural gas, PNG boasts 7% of the world’s biodiversity.

Biodiversity assessment of the PNG LNG Upstream Project Area, Southern Highlands and Hela Provinces, Papua New Guinea 2018-12-17

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The island of New Guinea has an exceptionally high biodiversity, and a large proportion of its fauna and flora is found nowhere else on Earth. Charismatic species such as birds-of-paradise, echidnas and tree kangaroos are widely known and often have great cultural significance for local communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Less well known is that the flora and smaller fauna of PNG are not only incredibly diverse but remain poorly documented, and numerous plants and animals that are new to science are being discovered every year.